quinta-feira, 13 de novembro de 2014

The Queen's English or The Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation, often abbreviated to RP, is an accent of spoken English. Unlike other UK accents, it's identified not so much with a particular region as with a particular social group, although it has connections with the accent of Southern England. RP is associated with educated speakers and formal speech. It has connotations of prestige and authority, but also of privilege and arrogance.

Some people even think that the name 'Received Pronunciation' is a problem - if only some accents or pronunciations are 'received', then the implication is that others should be rejected or refused.When writing his pronouncing dictionary in 1916, phonetician Daniel Jones described RP as the accent "most usually heard in everyday speech in the families of Southern English persons whose menfolk have been educated at the great public boarding schools". Although this description would raise a few eyebrows today, RP is still the accent generally represented in dictionaries which give pronunciations, and it's also used as a model for the teaching of English as a foreign language.

Perhaps for this reason, RP is often thought of as an unchanging accent; a standard against which other accents can be measured or judged. Some people don't even think of it as an accent at all, but rather a way of speaking without an accent.

Speaking without an accent, though, would be like painting without a colour! In fact, there is considerable variation within groups of people who are said to speak RP, the term is differently interpreted by different people, and RP itself has changed considerably over time.

To know further...

quinta-feira, 23 de outubro de 2014

A Summary made by Alessandra Tiraboschi

Secrets from the Science of Persuasion
by Robert Cialdini & Steve Martin
What are the factors that influence us to say "yes"?

There are some researches about it. We can think when someone makes a decision consider all available informations, but the reality is very different. Our life is overloaded than we need shortcuts to guide our decision-making.

There are six shortcuts: reciprocity, scarcity, authority, consistency, liking and consensus.

1. Reciprocity: obligation to give when you receive. Be the first to give, personalized and unexpected.

2. Scarcity: people want more of those things there are less of. The benefits are very important but what's unique and what they stand to lose are much more important to persuad.

3. Authority: people will follow credible, knowledgeable and experts. Diplomas, uniforms, credentials and expertise influence people.

4. Consistency: looking for and asking for commitments that can be made.

5. Liking: there are 3 important factors. We like people who:
                - are similar to us
                - pay us compliments
                - cooperate with us

6. Consensus: people will look to the actions of others to determine their own.

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That's Not Funny

Experts say that several obvious differences in people affect what they find humorous. The­ most significant seems to be age.

Infants and children are constantly discovering the world around them. A lot of what goes on seems ridiculous and surprising, which strikes them as funny. What's funny to a toddler consists of short and simple concepts, like an elephant joke. Along with the ridiculous and the surprising, children -- much to their parents' dismay -- also appreciate jokes where cruelty is present (it boosts their self-assertiveness) and what we refer to as "toilet humor." To children, a preoccupation with bodily functions is simply another way of exploring their fascinating new environment.

The pre-teen and teenage years are, almost universally, awkward and tense. Lots of adolescents and teens laugh at jokes that focus on sex, food, authority figures and -- in typical rebellious style -- any subject that adults consider off-limits. It is an insecure time of life and young people often use humor as a tool to protect themselves or to feel superior.

As we mature, both our physical bodies and mental outlooks grow and change. Since there is a certain amount of intelligence involved in "getting" a joke, our senses of humor becomes more developed as we learn more. By the time we're grown, we have experienced much of life, including tragedy and success. In keeping with these experiences, our senses of humor are more mature. We laugh at other people and ourselves in shared common predicaments and embarrassments. The adult sense of humor is usually characterized as more subtle, more tolerant and less judgmental about the differences in people. The things we find funny as a result of our age or developmental stage seem to be related to the stressors we experience during this time. Basically, we laugh at the issues that stress us out.

Another factor that affects what we find funny is the culture or community from which we come. Have you ever laughed at a joke and realized that if you were from anywhere else in the world, it just wouldn't be funny? It's a fact of life that culture and community provide lots of fodder for jokes. There are economic, political and social issues that are easy to laugh about, but only the people living in that culture may understand it. For example, a joke from a small country might not have universal appeal because it would be so little understood. The big, influential, much-observed United States might be the exception to this rule.

Thanks to media and movies, most people around the world know what is going on here. So jokes about a situation in the United States can be enjoyed pretty much across the globe.
When people say "That's not funny," theorist Veatch says they mean either "It is offensive" or "So, what's the point?" For someone to find a joke or situation offensive, he must have some attachment to the principle or person being demeaned or put down in the joke. So racist and sexist jokes are offensive to many people who feel strongly about fighting bigotry and prejudice in the world. According to Veatch, when someone says, "So, what's the point?" it indicates the absence of any moral or emotional attachment or commitment to the joke's "victim."

Source: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/laughter2.htm

quinta-feira, 9 de outubro de 2014

The Adventures of Alfie in Berlin Part III

I started my ride after the Parliament for the “Platz Der Replublik”, indeed,  it is a simple garden without flowers, just some trees and grass, what really worth over there is the all sight of the Parliament building.

After that, I crossed the street after post this garden and I started my journey at the “Tiergarten”, this one a real garden, or rather a park, I’m not sure, but it should be the lungs of the city, because it’s really huge. The first building that I saw in the middle of trees was an Olympic cauldron, I honestly can’t tell you if it really was, but it looked like one….lolol…A little bit forward, I’ve found the “Haus Der Kulturen Welt”, the place is very beautiful, there are a kind lake in front of the construction, the building resembles a concert hall. But, the biggest and best surprise I had when I crossed the lake and walked around the building, It had a sort of balcony that overlooked to the Spree River and downstairs there was a bar with a gorgeous people, good humored, of course, that I stopped over there for a little time to take some beer and eat a sausage…lol…So I’ve followed my way around the Tiergaten searching the “Siegessaule”, a statue in front of the Brandenburg Tor, in the middle of the Tiergarten. I arrived for the left side of the River, with a wonderful Palace called “Bellevue Palace” which they told me it was the official residence of the German President, any time I will ask for him….lolol…when I turned left I could see the “Siegessaule”, a wonderful statue, huge, well preserved and surrounded by great monuments, a really beautiful place. To get closer to the statue you have to cross through underground galleries, clean and with interactive panels.

Still on Sunday, I am sure you can realise that it was a huge and interesting day….lolol….after the visit of the “Siegassaule”, I sat down on stairs to plan my next destination, so I’ve decided to cross the “Tiergaten” through the “Fasaneriealle”, an wonderful diagonal alley that it finished on the Zoo-Aquarium Berlin. It was sunset and the day it was very bright and sunny, the ride became even more pleasant, The Alley was very interesting, a lot of statues and even dedications like to Michael Jackson for example. At the end of the Alley, in front of the exit of the park is the “Spanische Botschaft”, a gorgeous place and, the best, on the other side of the Consulate I found my first “Biergarten” in Berlin, I had only seen in Munich, of course, I did a stopped over there to enjoy the local customs. Then I went back to my way, crossed a bridge over a river, that honestly I didn’t know the name, but I think to be an arm of the Spree River, by the way, an interesting place because the bridge is divided, and a part belongs to the Zoo and another not. 

After the bridge, I turned to the left, walked around part of the Zoo and ended the day making my first contact with the famous “Kurfürstendamm”, where all the luxury brands of the world are. The place is very beautiful, the street is well wooded and pretty much elegant. I was there for some time (I’ll speak better about this place), I got in to know the KaDeWe and then, for the first time in Berlin, I took the Underground (the “Tube” over there) going back to my local home….lolo….

terça-feira, 7 de outubro de 2014

Science declares this is the funniest joke in the world

A new book about humor describes a scientific experiment searching for the joke that is truly the funniest. One million people rated jokes. CNET blogger Chris Matyszczyk wonders if the winner will make you laugh.

by Chris Matyszczyk 

What makes you laugh?

Science is poking its nose into every part of human life.

While some laugh at the very notion of us all soon becoming robots, the Googlies and their ilk continue toward their serious goal of coding humanity.

Sadly, there has to be a collision. Thankfully, science has taken it upon itself to discover which joke is truly the funniest in the world.

As the Huffington Post reports, British researcher Richard Wiseman worked hard to understand the core of humor. His story is told in a new book by Scott Weems called "Ha!: The Science Of When We Laugh And Why."

Wiseman reached some fascinating and very scientific conclusions. The funniest animal is, allegedly, a duck. The Brits apparently prefer their humor dry, while the Americans are allegedly fond of aggression in their humor. Oh, that's funny.

But the most important part of this work was surely the search for the funniest joke in the world. Wiseman asked 1 million people to offer their ratings.

I am conscious of the dangers involved in asking 1 million people about anything. We have often seen the difficult results inherent in any democracy or popularity contest.

Here, though, I present the winner:

" Two hunters are out in the woods when one of them collapses. He's not breathing and his eyes are glazed, so his friend calls 911. "My friend is dead! What should I do?" The operator replies, "Calm down, sir. I can help. First make sure that he's dead." There's a silence, then a loud bang. Back on the phone, the guy says, "OK, now what?"

(pauses for reaction)

So, your keyboard or screen has now either been covered by a cocktail of coffee and spittle. Or you are sitting there considering the meaning of life and the worth of your fellow man.

I will only offer one small observation about humor. Context means so much. There are times of the day, moments of an evening, when certain forms of humor seem to work.

There are other occasions when the very same joke, even told to the very same people, descends like a stricken owl.

Often, there's no controlling these moments. I was once at a dinner with 20 female professional golfers. They began to tell jokes. Each was a touch more filthy than the last.

When it came to my turn, I had no idea what to do. My pinot noir had every idea. So I told a joke that, I confess, plumbed one or two depths.

When I got to the punchline, there was a pause. Several nanoseconds of fear. Then, laughter.

I was lucky. They were drunk.

I think Wiseman's 1 million would have hated it.

Source: http://www.cnet.com/news/science-declares-this-is-the-funniest-joke-in-the-world/

quinta-feira, 2 de outubro de 2014

Why Do We Laugh?

Philosopher John Morreall believes that the first human laughter may have begun as a g­esture of shared relief at the passing of danger. And since the relaxation that results from a bout of laughter inhibits the biological fight-or-flight response, laughter may indicate trust in one's companions.

Many researchers believe that the purpose of laughter is related to making and strengthening human connections. "Laughter occurs when people are comfortable with one another, when they feel open and free. And the more laughter [there is], the more bonding [occurs] within the group," says cultural anthropologist Mahadev Apte. This feedback "loop" of bonding-laughter-more bonding, combined with the common desire not to be singled out from the group, may be another reason why laughter is often contagious.

Studies have also found that dominant individuals -- the boss, the tribal chief or the family patriarch -- use humor more than their subordinates. If you've often thought that everyone in the office laughs when the boss laughs, you're very perceptive. In such cases, Morreall says, controlling the laughter of a group becomes a way of exercising power by controlling the emotional climate of the group. So laughter, like much human behavior, must have evolved to change the behavior of others, Provine says. For example, in an embarrassing or threatening situation, laughter may serve as a conciliatory gesture or as a way to deflect anger. If the threatening person joins the laughter, the risk of confrontation may lessen.

Provine is among only a few people who are studying laughter much as an animal behaviorist might study a dog's bark or a bird's song. He believes that laughter, like the bird's song, functions as a kind of social signal. Other studies have confirmed that theory by proving that people are 30 times more likely to laugh in social settings than when they are alone (and without pseudo-social stimuli like television). Even nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, loses much of its oomph when taken in solitude, according to German psychologist Willibald Ruch.

Next, we'll learn how we laugh.

Source: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/laughter2.htm

quinta-feira, 25 de setembro de 2014


Ricardo Schütz
Janeiro de 2014

Aprender a falar um idioma estrangeiro consiste não apenas em assimilar seus elementos, mas também em evitar a interferência negativa da língua materna. Embora este tipo de interferência seja mais evidente na pronúncia, também ocorre no plano gramatical, levando o aluno a produzir frequentemente frases desestruturadas e incompreensíveis. O próprio aluno normalmente sente que algo está errado, mas a ideia que ele está tentando colocar está tão intimamente associada à estrutura usada no português, que parece não haver outra maneira. O estudo comparativo de dois idiomas leva à clara identificação dessas diferenças entre eles e permite prever os erros bem como procurar evitá-los antes de se tornarem hábitos.

Este trabalho é resultado de uma minuciosa análise dos erros mais frequentemente observados no ensino de EFL (English as a Foreign Language) a brasileiros. Muitos destes erros podem ser observados mesmo em alunos que já alcançaram níveis avançados de fluência, e resultam da falta de contato com a língua ou de um contato através de instrutores que falam um inglês "aportuguesado".

Além da interferência negativa da língua materna, temos aquela proveniente da generalização de regras do idioma estrangeiro; ou seja, da não-observância de exceções. Alguns destes pontos também são abordados neste trabalho.

1. Formulação de ideias interrogativas e negativas
2. The subtle presence of the verb TO BE - Presença/ausência do verbo TO BE
3. Subjectless sentences - Frases sem sujeito
4. There TO BE = ter (existência)
5. No TO after modals
6. A combinação impossível de FOR com TO
7. No double negative words
8. O numeral ONE e o artigo A(N)
9. No THE before names and other article problems
10. SAY and TELL
12. No TODAY and no IN before THIS ...(time)...
13. YOUR não é o mesmo que SEU (DELE, DELA)
14. I THINK SO não é o mesmo que I THINK (THAT) …
15. Countable & Uncountable Nouns - Uso Correto de seus Quantifiers
16. Countable & Uncountable Contrasts with Portuguese
17. Verb Transitivity Contrasted
18. Verb + Infinitive & Verb + Gerund
TO e FOR comparados a PARA
The Perfect Tense and its Portuguese equivalents

Para ler mais acesse: http://www.sk.com.br/sk-gram.html

quinta-feira, 11 de setembro de 2014

O misterioso pronome "It"

Pronome It
It é um mistério. De todos os pronomes em inglês, o " it " é o que é sempre esquecido. Pudera...afinal, em português não usamos esse tal de " it " para quase nada. De acordo com a gramática oficial, usamos o pronome pessoal "it" para nos referir a objetos, lugares e animais. Além do uso, quando o sujeito é indefinido. Porém, a confusão para os alunos brasileiros é sempre grande. Veja esses exemplos abaixo:
Está quente
Foi legal
Será muito bom
Chove bastante
Depende de você
Leva uma hora para chegar em casa
Não vai durar para sempre
Não usamos pronome algum nessas sentenças, mas em inglês:
IT is hot
IT was cool
IT will be very good
IT rains a lot
IT depends on you
IT tales an hour to get home
It won't last forever.
Sem contar os complementos como no seguinte diálogo:
- Você gosta dessa canção?
- Não, não gosto! Na verdade, odeio.
Em inglês, ficaria:
- Do you like this song?
- No, I don't. Actually, I hate IT.
Segue explicação abaixo do professor Denilson do site " Inglês na Ponta da Língua"
" A situação é a seguinte: em português não é extremamente necessário usarmos um pronome nesse caso. Portanto, nós sempre diremos “eu adoro”. Já em inglês, você deve sempre usar o “it” para que a sentença fique gramaticalmente correta. Esse “it” no final dessa sentença, nesse diálogo em específico, refere-se ao “to study English” da pergunta.
É como se a pessoa estivesse dizendo: “Yes, I do. Actually, I love to study English”. No entanto, como não é preciso ficar repetindo tudo, dizemos apenas “I love it”. "
O interessante é que por mais que o " it" seja quase ignorado ou reduzido ao uso de coisas e animais, sem " it ", o seu inglês não vai a lugar algum. Especialmente se você precisar fazer perguntas como essas:
- Quanto tempo leva para chegar no aeroporto?
- Chove muito por lá?
- foi difícil chegar na festa?
Então. Você consegue fazer essa perguntas sem usar o " it "?

quinta-feira, 4 de setembro de 2014

The Adventures of Alfie in Berlin

By Alfredo Saraiva JR.

I’ve arrived in Berlin on Saturday (12th) around 11 a.m., my first impression about the city could be bad, because that Airport didn't  match with the greatness of the city, and even less with the Western Europe, but I got out of the Airport and began to see the city.

I went to the Hotel by Bus, it was really incredible and confortable, you can bring your luggage with you inside the bus.

The route was very fast, around 10/15 minutes ‘till the Hotel. I was staying at the Mélia Hotel, at the corner with the River and the Museum Island, simply amazing. Of course, even tired, I gave a ride around the neighborhood to make the first acknowledgement of the city and I went to Brandenburg Tor. indeed, I was very anxious for this moment….lol…What can I say? Man, It’s so wonderful, everything is huge, the place, the surrounding, the street, the garden behind, you know, that kind of feeling that can take yor breath away...it was like that. I still had strength to walk ‘till Postdamer Platz, see some parts of the wall over there and I took a million of photos and, of course, I had my first German sausage with potatoes salad over there….lolol….

The Adventures of You - What's new with you?

I got a new job, teacher: dog walking! Sim, saí do Pub.
Trabalhar com bebum é complicado, teacher, so, um amigo de um friend of mine told me sobre esse trabalho e vim fazer uma entrevista e passei. Resultado: ganho a mesma coisa e trabalho muito menos. Tudo o que tenho que fazer de pesado é limpar coco de cachorro e tratar todos os dogs por seus nomes e jamais, ever never ever, chamar os bichos de "it".
C'mon, teacher! I have learned all my life que " he " era para meninos, "she" para meninas e "it " para cachorros e agora não posso usar. Give me a break!!!
A minha chefe é um mulher bem demanding who chefia uma ONG que cuida de animais aqui no UK. As far as I entendi, ela está lutando na justiça para que uma lei mude a gramática inglesa. Ela quer extinguir o pronome " it " para animais. Can you believe IT? Rsss...hahahaha...lol
Tem cada mad people por aqui. Well, me pagando bem...I will do IT, quero dizer, do her, do him, do them...caramba, a gramática vai ficar bem difícil se os caras ouvirem ela...lol
E a louca da She, ela decidiu mesmo ser uma teacher? Xi... De aluna à rival, teacher. Don't blame me! Entendeu agora porque vim morar tão longe?
Take good c

quarta-feira, 3 de setembro de 2014

Ode to the stutterer

by Daniele Garcia

Look at that girl:
The stutterer girl
The stupid speech
The certain joke.

Look at the stutterer:
The bully's target
The clunky kid
The shut up mouth.

Look at the child:
Waiting for the growth
Dreaming in French
Getting up in silence.

Look at that girl:
Meeting another stutterer
Collecting judgements
Growing through this life.

Look at this girl:
Telling stories slowly
Sharing her dread
Challenging her ghosts.

Now look at this singer:
Strong on the main stage
Powerful on the piano
Tricking her brain.

Sing your song, girl:
Give us your speech
Make all of us stutter...
Make all of us shut up!

Based on the TED lecture

quinta-feira, 28 de agosto de 2014

The Adventures of She Aprendemos mais quando ensinamos

by Frank Oliveira

She told me She had found a job: as an English Teacher. As She was still my English student, I have never thought She would move this far. I was quite surprised.

- Você não vai dizer nada? - She said.

- O que você quer que eu diga? - I replied.

- Que você acha uma boa ideia...to start with.

- Eu acho que todas as idéias são geniais quando o assunto é melhorar o seu inglês.

- Você não acha que eu serei uma boa professora...

- Eu não disse isso. Só acredito que você terá que estudar muito mais para se tornar uma professora. Daí, se será boa ou não, só os seus alunos lhe dirão.

- Meu inglês não é o suficiente?

- Só inglês nunca é suficiente para ensinar, She. Nativos são fluentes, mas nem todos conseguem ensinar.

- Um nativo não pode ensinar direito?

- Um nativo ensinará direito se ele estudar para ser professor. É preciso entender como alguém aprende para poder ensinar direito.

- Você sempre soube como as pessoas aprendiam? Não vai me dizer que você nunca errou como professor?

- Errei e ainda erro, mas aprendo com isso para me melhorar e consequentemente ajudar melhor os meus alunos. A questão é que muita gente decide dar aulas de inglês apenas para praticar seu segundo idioma e se esquece - ou ignora - as complexidades de se ensinar alguém. Os cursos de inglês estão cheios de falantes da língua que não são professores.

- Se eu não me engano, eu li um artigo seu chamado " Inglês com um Mestre Ignorante", Professor. Nesse artigo, o senhor diz que aprendemos mais quando ensinamos. E diz, even more, que qualquer pessoa pode ensinar.

- Sim, eu escrevi esse artigo faz alguns anos depois de ter lido um livro fantástico do filósofo francês Jacques Rancière. Porém, esse artigo foi apenas uma dissertação sobre o fato que um grupo de bons aprendizes pode aprender com qualquer coisa, até mesmo com um "Mestre Ignorante" da matéria. A minha preocupação é com alunos com dificuldade de aprendizado que podem piorar ainda mais se caírem nos "books on the table" dos falantes da língua que não são professores.

- Eu sei que eles podem aprender comigo, Professor. Eu quero mesmo compartilhar o que eu sei e melhorar fazendo isso.

- She, eu não duvido da sua capacidade, só quero que você não se esqueça da responsabilidade dessa decisão. A cada aula que dou, a cada novo aluno que ensino, mas tenho certeza que eu tenho muito a aprender, entende? E olha que tenho mais de 15 anos de experiência.

- Eu não vou tomar o seu emprego. Há espaço para todos.

- Não estou preocupado com isso...

- It seems to me, Professor, que você está contra a minha ideia de ensinar.

- Eu não estou contra anything, She. Só quero saber se você compreende a complexidade que é ensinar e se sabe as consequências dessa aventura tanto para você quanto para quem for seu estudante. Você consegue entender que é preciso muito mais que inglês para ensinar alguém a falar outra língua?

- Sim, mas acredito que qualquer pessoa pode aprender a ensinar. E eu quero aprender a fazer isso com o senhor, se o senhor quiser me ajudar. Portanto, Professor, eu quero que saiba que eu não vim aqui te pedir permissão para ensinar; eu vou fazer isso e pronto. Eu só quero saber se posso contar com a sua ajuda....

- Eu posso te ajudar, mas com uma condição.

- Eu vou te pagar.

- She!

- Ok, Professor. O que preciso melhorar?

- Eu quero que você aprenda primeiro a te ensinar. Você sabe das suas fraquezas em inglês e eu já te expliquei o que você deve fazer para melhorar. Monte um plano de recasting para você por conta própria, sugira soluções, mudanças e prazos. Se você conseguir GO that FURTHER e me mostrar que você está praticando o que sugeriu, você passará de aprendiz de inglês à aprendiz de professora na minha escola.

- Você vai me orientar then.

- Indeed.

- Acho que eu deveria te agradecer por isso.

- Agradeça quando você entrar na sala de aula como professora e não apenas como um falante da língua querendo praticar. Mostre isso para si mesma e seus alunos vão te respeitar e - quem sabe - eles poderão aprender tanto com você quanto você aprenderá com eles.

quinta-feira, 21 de agosto de 2014

The power of our mind

By Daniele Garcia

I was a child when my grandfather, and my friend, passed away. Three days before his death, something awkward happened: he saw one of his daughters, my aunt Celma, passing in front of him. It was awkward for one single reason: my grandfather was totally blind. In that time, my family interpreted the episode as a symptom of death, which naturally could be it. My grandfather, a blind man, seeing clearly for a few seconds.

Twenty four years later, I was watching a lecture with a famous psychiatrist, Dr. Oliver Sacks, who talked about visual hallucinations. A special condition which can happen with visual impaired people; old ones, in many cases. Immediately I remembered my grandfather, his blindness and his hallucination. Maybe that episode was not a mind disease, even a dementia or a moment of madness. Maybe the vision of my grandpapa could be a “game” of his mind, accessing a specific area in his brain which made him see... with his mind.

The researches about this specific visual hallucination suggest that our brain has got powers which we have never thought. Our mind can scare us, it can surprise us, but it can save us as well.

Another psychiatrist, Dr. Eleanor Longden, was a victim of one of these powers of our mind. She started hearing voices inside her mind. A thing which frightened her, the schizophrenia diagnosis, in fact was a signal of her mind: a huge trauma. Some years later, she figured out that  the voices were a path which her mind used to alert her about a painful past: a past of sexual abuse, which was hidden from herself.

Another psychiatrist, Jill Taylor, had a stroke. Nevertheless, this stroke was not a simple thing. It was an hemorrhage in the left side of her brain. It is important to say that the left side of our brain is responsible for the language and logical thoughts. On the other hand, the right one is totally sensorial, visual and creative. So when the left side of her brain was dead because she had a stroke, she had a beautiful experience of euphoria, depersonalization and energy which was not possible without the stroke that had paralyzed her left side.

Our brain is able to do many things. Therefore, we are responsible to listen and understand its signals. We see the power of our mind in many occasions, like collective events. For example: we can experiment a kind of self-transcendence in a football match, even a war or even a religious manifestation, as the social scientist Jonathan Haidt explored in his research. It is possible to do many things in a collective way. Nevertheless, there is a thing that our brain can not explain: the faith. The faith is a certain in something or someone that we don’t see, but that we believe anyway.

Never, never forget that your brain is able to do giant things, and please, be opened to experiment it. But never, never forget that faith can be much powerful than your body. And when you have faith, and in the same time you are opened to the power of your brain, you can understand our world pretty much better.

Our Learner, Daniele, made this homework afeter studying specific TED lectures in order to improve her listening, writing and understanding of the English Language.

1. Jonathan Haidt: religion, evolution and the ecstasy of self-transcendence

2. My Stroke of Insight

3. Oliver Sacks
What hallucinations Reveals about Our Mind

4. Eleanor Longden: The Voices in my Head   

sexta-feira, 8 de agosto de 2014

How to Improve Your Listening

It is quite simple, you just need some discipline and a little bit of effort. How?

1. Watch a lecture or a presentation in English - no subtitles. It is not necessary to know the subject by heart. Don't try to pay attention to unknown words, just get the main context. Give yourself a rate: from 1 to 10 related to your understanding.

2. Watch the same lecture again. This time, pay attention to intonation and the reaction of the public. If they are laughing, it is probably a joke related to the topic or something cultural that even if you had the vocabulary, there would be a slightly chance that you wouldn't be able to understand. Bear in mind, that accent, intonation and pronunciation can affect your understanding rather than vocabulary. Give yourself another rate and see if there is any improvement.

3. Research vocabulary and data related to the topic of the lecture. You will need it for the next step.

4. Now, you are ready to watch the lecture with subtitles in English. Afterwards, give yourself again a rate. Check out and compare your numbers and if you had any increase, it means that you have learned all you need to improve your listening: studying and practicing!

Take & Get

quarta-feira, 30 de julho de 2014

terça-feira, 29 de julho de 2014

sexta-feira, 4 de julho de 2014

Better Homework, Revision & Examinations for ESL Students

Josef Essberger

Even if you are learning English in a school, you probably spend a lot of time working alone on your English. The time you spend working alone is actually very valuable for you. And you can increase its value by working in a disciplined, systematic way. At the same time, try to relax. Be cool. You will learn more easily and more quickly.

Here are some tips to help you learn as efficiently as possible. We will consider three aspects of your work:

1.Homework: INput; new language, new grammar, new vocabulary; exercises
2.Revision: reinforcement; looking again at what you have already studied; consolidation. This is very important.
3.The Examination: OUTput; this could be a major exam like the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English, or an exam like the TOEIC, or a test at school.
•Decide what time to do your homework each day - and then do it at that time without fail!
•Find a convenient place to work and always work in that place.
•Do your work progressively, a little at a time. Don't wait until you have a lot to do. That will worry you, and you will find it hard to start.
•Be disciplined about your homework time. Don't waste your homework time doing other things, like telephoning friends or making cups of coffee!
•Keep all your work together in a folder or file. Keep it tidy. Don't do it on scraps of paper.
•Keep a record of what you have done each week - and what you plan to do the next week.
•Leave time in your plan for unexpected events.
•Revise in an organised way. Make a plan at the beginning - and follow to it!
•Do not spend all your time revising! Try to spend time on your normal hobbies and your social life.
•Make your revision interesting by relating it to the real world - the news, for example, or your job.
•Make notes for your revision constantly. And try to practise what you revise.
•If you do not understand something, ASK! Never be afraid to ask. Ask your teacher, ask the local library, ask EnglishCLUB.net. Asking questions helps you to understand.
•Try to talk to other people about your revision. Discuss any problems with your friends and family.
•If it seems difficult, think about the future. You are working hard now for a better future!
The Examination
•Try to relax the night before the exam. Do not revise too late. Go to bed early!
•On the day of the exam, have a good breakfast. Leave home early, so that you will not panic if the traffic is bad.
•Do not worry if you are nervous. It is normal and natural to be nervous. It will make you more alert for the exam and so you will do better.
•Read the exam paper very carefully. Be sure that you understand all the instructions - and then follow them!
•Look for the questions that have the highest marks or points. Do them first.
•Give yourself a time limit for each question so that you can finish the whole exam.
•Make sure that you include your name and all necessary details (examination number, centre number etc) correctly.
Finally, try to be relaxed about your studies. Language is only a method of communication. It is really quite easy. You are already an expert in your own language. Soon you will be an expert in English too!

© 1999 Josef Essberger

Source: http://www.englishclub.com

quinta-feira, 3 de julho de 2014

The English Language In 24 Accents

Me attempting to do 24 different accents from my own country and from other countries around the world. Hopefully I got most of them right but I may have made mistakes and I can do some better than others. However, I made this video for my friends because I promised them I would do an accent video. I mean no offence to anyone and please don't be upset if I have not included your specific accent or got it wrong.

quarta-feira, 2 de julho de 2014


A doodle is a type of sketch, an unfocused drawing made while a person's attention is otherwise occupied.

Doodles are simple drawings that can have concrete representational meaning or may just be abstract shapes.

Stereotypical examples of doodling are found in school notebooks, often in the margins, drawn by students daydreaming or losing interest during class.

Other common examples of doodling are produced during long telephone conversations if a pen and paper are available.

Popular kinds of doodles include cartoon versions of teachers or companions in a school, famous TV or comic characters, invented fictional beings, landscapes, geometric shapes and patterns, textures, banners with legends, and animations made by drawing a scene sequence in various pages of a book or notebook.

Regardless of any advancement in technology, pen and paper will always be the number once choice for any budding artist or illustrator. It is with the these pencil sketches that we create great designs. So, what exactly makes a doodle so fascinating even though it is claimed to be one of the most unproductive ways of spending time. Maybe a gross understatement, but once you look at these creative doodles, you will know what I’m talking about.

A doodle is a type of sketch, an unfocused drawing made while a person’s attention is otherwise occupied elsewhere. Doodles are simple drawings that can have concrete representational meaning or may just be abstract shapes. Stereotypical examples of doodling are found in school notebooks, often in the margins, drawn by students daydreaming or losing interest during class. Other common examples of doodling are produced during long telephone conversations if a pen and paper are available.Popular kinds of doodles include cartoon versions of teachers or companions in a school, famous TV or comic characters, invented fictional beings, landscapes, geometric shapes, textures, banners with legends, and animations made by drawing a scene sequence in various pages of a book or notebook. (via wikipedia)
In this article, I have showcased some of the coolest doodle art found on the web. Some of them will just blow you away. Also, at the end of the article, I have given links to some really useful resources and articles which will definitely be of interest to you.
So, Enjoy the journey.
Source: http://richworks.in/2010/04/25-most-creative-examples-of-doodle-art/

terça-feira, 1 de julho de 2014

A importância do contexto

Por Ulisses Wehby de Carvalho

Source: http://www.teclasap.com.br/blog

É impressionante o número de perguntas que chegam ao “Fórum Tecla SAP” com títulos do tipo “Como se diz “qualquer coisa” em inglês?”. Até aí nada de extraordinário, pois trata-se de interesse legítimo em ampliar os conhecimentos da língua inglesa. O que muitos estudantes não percebem é que, instintivamente, acabam criando a expectativa de que existe uma conexão direta e estática entre os vocábulos, como se houvesse uma relação biunívoca entre as palavras. Relação o quê? É isso mesmo, biunívoca. Para quem não se lembra das aulas de matemática, uma relação biunívoca é aquela que associa, a cada um dos elementos de um conjunto, um único elemento de outro conjunto, e vice-versa, como na Figura 1 abaixo.

É natural que, ao começarmos a estudar uma língua estrangeira, façamos esse tipo de associação. Que atire a primeira pedra quem, conscientemente ou não, nunca pensou assim. Acontece que, na prática, nenhum termo existe em um fundo cinza estéril. Palavra só é palavra de verdade quando está dentro de um contexto. Tomemos como exemplos três situações distintas, como na Figura 2.

Vejamos agora o que acontece com os mesmos vocábulos do exemplo inicial (Figura 1), agora inseridos no contexto esportivo (Figura 3), mais especificamente no mundo do tênis. Observe as possíveis alterações de sentido.

É lógico que “pegador” aqui não é o rapaz namorador que faz muito sucesso com as garotas. Trata-se de “BALL BOY”, o “pegador de bolas” no tênis. Quanto a “LOVE” querer dizer “zero”, confira o post Vocabulário: Zero publicado aqui no Tecla SAP. Mudemos de contexto mais uma vez e vejamos o que acontece no próximo caso.

Aí você me pergunta: Quer dizer que “HOUSE” no contexto político significa “câmara (dos deputados)”? Então “WHITE HOUSE” é “Câmara Branca” por acaso? Eu respondo: não caia na mesma armadilha! É claro que “WHITE HOUSE” sempre foi e continuará sendo “Casa Branca”. Não se esqueça, no entanto, de que “HOUSE” pode ser “casa” ou, entre outras acepções, “Câmara”. Jamais se esqueça de que as relações entre os elementos de um conjunto com os do outro conjunto são muito voláteis. Em outras palavras, são relações de curtíssima duração. Está começando a entender onde quero chegar? Observemos mais um quadro:

Ao encerrar uma carta para parente ou amigo próximo é comum usarmos a palavra “LOVE”. Nesses casos, podemos afirmar que “LOVE” é equivalente a “beijos”. Consulte os posts Vocabulário: Abraço e Curiosidades: XOXO para ler mais sobre o assunto. Em frases como “Oh boy, it’s cold in here!”, “BOY” passa a ser uma interjeição que indica surpresa, indignação, alegria etc. Poderíamos traduzi-la por “caramba”, “minha nossa” ou outra locução sinônima. Eu até poderia adicionar mais um ingrediente a essa salada se eu fosse falar de regionalismo, ou seja, “BOY” poderia, nesse caso, ser “Vixi!”, “Rapaz!”, “Caraca!”, “Meu!”, “Bah!”, “Eita!”, dependendo, é lógico, da região do Brasil em que você se encontra. Mas regionalismo fica para outro post.

Se a tese é válida até mesmo para palavras elementares como “LOVE”, “HOUSE” e “BOY”, o que dizer então de “POWER”? Como traduzir “POWER BOAT”, “POWER DRILL”, “POWER OF ATTORNEY”, “POWER STEERING” e “POWER SUPPLY” só com uma palavra em português? Simplesmente não dá. Há ainda “BREAKTHROUGH”, “EMPOWERMENT”, “TAKE FOR GRANTED”, entre muitas outras expressões que acabam gerando dificuldades quando são transpostas para o nosso idioma. Acontece que todas, invariavelmente, têm tradução! Clique nos links para conferir as soluções dadas por Isa Mara Lando, em seu excelente VocabuLando, ferramenta indispensável para quem leva a sério o estudo de inglês e a tradução. Infelizmente, não é sempre a mesma palavra, como acreditam alguns. As traduções serão feitas cada hora de um jeito, cada hora com uma solução diferente.

Espero que você tenha compreendido que os idiomas não são códigos que possuem símbolos análogos que podem ser simplesmente substituídos uns pelos outros. Se fosse assim, os softwares de tradução automática já teriam dado aos tradutores de carne e osso o mesmo destino que a calculadora deu ao ábaco. Em suma, estudar inglês é muito mais do que criar uma tabela de duas colunas no Word!

Lembre-se, portanto, das próximas vezes que perguntar o significado de palavra ou expressão no “Fórum Tecla SAP“, de dizer em que contexto você a ouviu/leu ou em que situação gostaria de empregá-la. Faça o mesmo na hora de guardar os significados de palavras e expressões novas no seu banco de dados mental.

Se até a matemática, uma ciência exata, tem um símbolo para indicar aproximações (aquele sinal de igual com o til em cima, lembra?), é loucura imaginar que as línguas, maleáveis por natureza, são precisas e estáticas. Mas são justamente a aparente incoerência e a constante imprevisibilidade suas características mais encantadoras. Qual seria a graça de somar 2 + 2 se o resultado sempre fosse 4?

segunda-feira, 30 de junho de 2014

Your CV or Resume In English

When you apply for a job, employers ask for two important documents:

1.A CV or resume
2.A covering letter
This month we look at your CV. Next month we will look at your covering letter.

Why you need a good CVYour CV is a summary of your professional and academic life. It usually concentrates on your personal details, education and work experience.

Your CV's job is very simple: to get you a job interview. To do this, your CV must be:

•easy to read
•relevant to the job offered
You should include everything that is relevant to your employment or career and nothing that is irrelevant. There are usually 5 general headings of information to include:

a.Personal details: name, address, email and telephone number (and sometimes nationality, age/date of birth and marital status)
b.Objective: a headline that summarises the job you want
c.Work experience: your employment in reverse chronological order
d.Education: details of secondary and university education
e.Personal interests: showing that you are a well-balanced person with an interesting life outside work
Sometimes, you may need to give additional information for a particular job or because you have special qualifications.

FormatIn the English-speaking world your CV should be word-processed, for several reasons:

•a hand-written CV is unprofessional
•some recruitment agencies and employers like to scan CVs electronically
•it will be easier for you to update and modify your CV later
It is usually best to limit your CV to a maximum of 2 pages. You can usually put everything you need on 1 or 2 pages.

There are basically 2 standard paper sizes, depending on your part of the world:

•A4 (297 x 210 millimetres) - as used in Europe
•Letter Size (8 1/2 x 11 inches) - as used in the United States
Your language should be simple and clear.

Use short words and short sentences.

Do not use technical vocabulary (unless you are sure that the reader will understand it).

Talk about concrete facts ("I increased sales by 50%"), not abstract ideas ("I was responsible for a considerable improvement in our market position").

Use verbs in the active voice, not passive voice. Which of these two sentences do you think is the more powerful?

•active: "I organised this exhibition."
•passive: "This exhibition was organised by me."
Use "power words". The most powerful words are verbs. And the most powerful verbs are action verbs. (Action verbs describe dynamic activity, not state).

Here, for example, are some typical power words for Management and Sales skills:

•Management skills: assign, attain, chair, co-ordinate, delegate, direct, execute, organise, oversee, plan, recommend, review, strengthen, supervise, train
•Sales skills: sell, convert, close, deal, persuade, highlight, satisfy, win over, sign
So you should use lots of action verbs matched to your skills, and use them in the active form, not the passive form.

Source: http://www.englishclub.com/

sexta-feira, 27 de junho de 2014


By Josef Essberger
KWIM? I thought not.

For e-English read "electronic English" and for IYKWIM read "if you know what I mean".

And for KWIM? Yes, that's right. You'll have to FIOFY.

The internet has created a whole new way of speaking when we write email, post messages or chat online.

It saves time and typing effort, but it's no joke if you don't know the "secret". So just to help you if you're not already a netspeak expert, here are a few of the basic rules and codes people use on the internet.

Remember, these are for use on the internet with friends. We do not usually use them in formal letters or faxes.

If we want to emphasise a word (make it more important), we often use asterisks (*), like this:

"I *love* EnglishCLUB.net."

Sometimes people use capitals to add emphasis but it is not a good idea. MOST PEOPLE DO NOT LIKE A LOT OF CAPITALS. THEY LOOK RUDE AND CAN BE DIFFICULT TO READ.

If we want to express our feelings and emotions, we can use "smileys". A smiley is a combination of symbols that looks like a face sideways. The original, basic smiley (eyes, nose and smiling mouth) is very popular and shows that we are happy:


We can also do this with eyes and mouth only:


Of course, if we are unhappy, we can change the mouth: :-(

There are many possibilities. Here are a few more:

•;-) wink
•:*) kiss
•:~) tears
To save time when typing (and maybe to save money if you are online), people often abbreviate commonly-used phrases. There are hundreds of possibilities and you certainly do not need all of them!

Some of these codes are just the first letter of each word, for example:

imo = in my opinion

Some of these codes use the sound of the letter to represent the sound of a word. For example, the letter "c" sounds like the word "sea" or "see":

cu = see you

Some of these codes use numbers because the sound of the number is the same as the sound of another word (not the spelling!). For example, 4 (four) sounds like "for". And 8 (eight) sounds like "ate". So if we write L8 we get "late". If we write W8 we get "wait"!

Here are some more examples:

•aamof = as a matter of fact
•asap = as soon as possible
•b4 = before
•b4n = bye for now
•cul8er = see you later
•damhik = don't ask me how I know
•eta = estimated time of arrival
•f2f = face to face
•gf = girlfriend
•gmt = Greenwich Mean Time
•hth = hope this helps
•icbw = I could be wrong
•jam = just a minute
•k = okay
•lmk = let me know
•mcibty = my computer is better than yours
•oic = oh I see
•pls = please
•plz = please
•q = queue
•rumf = are you male or female?
•sil = sister-in-law
•tia = thanks in advance
•uok = you ok?
•vr = virtual reality
•wdymbt = what do you mean by that?
•y2k = year 2000
© 1999 Josef Essberger

Source: http://www.englishclub.com

quinta-feira, 26 de junho de 2014

What's IN a Preposition?

What's IN a Preposition?
Josef Essberger

Prepositions can be divided into:

•one-word prepositions (eg at, into, on)
•complex prepositions (eg according to, in spite of)

The name "preposition" (pre + position) means "place before". Prepositions usually come *before* another word, usually a noun or noun phrase:

•noun (I will meet you IN *London*.)
•pronoun (Give it TO *her*.)
•noun phrase (I'm tired OF *all this work*.)
•gerund (verb in -ing form) (It crashed ON *landing*.)
If a preposition does not come before another word, it is still closely associated with another word:

•*Who* did you talk TO?
•TO *whom* did you talk?
•I talked TO *Jane*.
Notice that many prepositions can also be adverbs:

•He walked DOWN the hill. (preposition)
•Please sit DOWN. (adverb)
A few prepositions can also be conjunctions:

•Everyone came BUT Tara. (preposition)
•I asked her BUT she didn't answer. (conjunction)


How many prepositions are there in English? It is not possible to give a definite answer, partly because complex prepositions are "open class", which means that new ones could be invented at any time. But for a list of almost all the one-word and complex prepositions in common use, see English Prepositions Listed which includes 370 example sentences.


Many words are associated with a particular preposition. When you learn a new word, try to learn the preposition associated with it. A good dictionary usually gives you examples.

Here are some common verbs that are associated with a particular preposition:

•to agree WITH somebody
•to agree ABOUT a subject
•to agree ON a decision
•to agree TO a proposal
•to arrive AT/IN a place
•to ask FOR something (but to ask a question/the time/directions etc)
•to borrow something FROM somebody
•to depend ON somebody/something
•to explain something TO somebody
•to insist ON -ing
•to laugh AT somebody/something
•to listen TO somebody/something
•to participate IN something
•to pay FOR something
•to be rude TO somebody
•to shoot AT somebody/something
•to smile AT somebody
•to succeed IN something
•to talk TO somebody
•to talk WITH somebody (US)
•to worry ABOUT something
•to write TO somebody
Here are a few common expressions with particular prepositions:

•to be afraid OF somebody/something
•to be angry WITH somebody
•to be angry ABOUT something
•to be bad AT something
•to be clever AT something
•to be good AT something
•to be interested IN something
•to be kind TO somebody
•to be nice TO somebody
© 2001 Josef Essberger

Source: http://www.englishclub.com

quarta-feira, 18 de junho de 2014

False Friends

Careful with the False Friends! Both in your life and in your English. 

See the list and exercise below:


sexta-feira, 13 de junho de 2014

Humor: It’s great being a woman because…

14 It’s great being a woman because…

1.We got off the Titanic first.
2.We can scare male bosses with the mysterious gynaecological disorder excuses.
3.Taxis stop for us.
4.We don’t look like a frog in a blender when dancing.
5.No fashion faux pas we make, could ever rival the Speedo.
6.We don’t have to pass gas to amuse ourselves.
7.If we forget to shave, no one has to know.
8.We can congratulate our team-mate without ever touching her rear end.
9.We never have to reach down every so often to make sure our privates are still there.
10.We have the ability to dress ourselves.
11.We can talk to the opposite sex without having to picture them naked.
12.If we marry someone 20 years younger, we are aware that we will look like an idiot.
13.We will never regret piercing our ears.
14.There are times when chocolate really can solve all your problems.
15.We can make comments about how silly men are in their presence because they aren’t listening anyway.

Source: http://www.teclasap.com.br

quinta-feira, 12 de junho de 2014

A White Shade of Pale - Procol Harum

We skipped the light fandango
And turned cartwheels across the floor
I was feeling kind of seasick
The crowd called out for more
The room was humming harder
As the ceiling flew away
When we called out for another drink
The waiter brought a tray

And so it was that later
As the miller told his tale
That her face at first just ghostly
Turned a whiter shade of pale

She said there is no reason
And the truth is plain to see
But I wandered through my playing cards
Would not let her be
One of sixteen vestal virgins
Who were leaving for the coast
At the moment my eyes were open
They might just as well have been closed

And so it was that later
As the miller told his tale
That her face at first just ghostly
Turned a whiter shade of pale


From Wikipedia:
"A Whiter Shade of Pale" is the debut song by the British band Procol Harum, released 12 May 1967. The single reached number one in the UK Singles Chart[1] on 8 June 1967, and stayed there for six weeks. (Without much promotion, it reached #5 on the US charts, as well.)

With its haunting tone and Bach overtones, vocals by Gary Brooker, and unusual lyrics by Keith Reid, "A Whiter Shade of Pale" reached #1 in several countries when released in 1967. In the years since, it has become an enduring classic. In 2009 it was the most played song in public places in the UK,[2] and the United Kingdom performing rights group Phonographic Performance Limited in 2004 recognized it as the most-played record by British broadcasting of the past 70 years.[3] Also in 2004, Rolling Stone placed "A Whiter Shade of Pale" #57 on its list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.

More than 900 recorded cover versions by other artists are known.[4] The song has been included in many music compilations over the decades and has also been used in the soundtracks of numerous films, including The Big Chill, Purple Haze, Breaking the Waves, The Boat That Rocked and notably in Martin Scorsese's segment of New York Stories. Cover versions of the song have also been featured in many films, for example by King Curtis in Withnail and I and by Annie Lennox in The Net.

The original writing credits were for Brooker and Reid only. On 30 July 2009, Matthew Fisher won co-writing credit for the music in a unanimous ruling from the Law Lords of the House of Lords.

Reid told Songfacts that he got the title at a party, which gave him a starting point for the song.[6] He overheard someone at the party saying to a woman, "You've turned a whiter shade of pale," and the phrase stuck in his mind.[7][8] The original lyrics had four verses, of which only two are heard on the original recording. The third verse has been heard in live performances by Procol Harum, and more seldom also the fourth.[9] The author of Procol Harum: beyond the pale, Claes Johansen, suggests that the song "deals in metaphorical form with a male/female relationship which after some negotiation ends in a sexual act."[8] This is supported by Tim de Lisle in Lives of the Great Songs, who remarks that the lyrics concern a drunken seduction, which is described through references to sex as a form of travel, usually nautical, using mythical and literary journeys.[10] Other observers have also commented that the lyrics concern a sexual relationship.[7]

The phrase a whiter shade of pale by Keith Reid has since gained widespread use in the English language, noticed by several dictionaries.[11][12][13] As such, the phrase is today often used in contexts independent of any consideration of the song. (See [14] for many annotated examples complete with links to original sources.) It has also been heavily paraphrased, in forms like an Xer shade of Y - this to the extent that it has been officially recognized[15][16] as a snowclone - a type of cliché and phrasal template.

The Hammond organ line of "A Whiter Shade of Pale" was inspired by Johann Sebastian Bach's "Sleepers, Wake!" and "Air on a G String", but contrary to popular belief, the song is not a direct copy or paraphrase of any music by Bach,[17] although it makes clear references to both pieces. This similarity is referenced in the 1982 play The Real Thing by Tom Stoppard and the 1991 film The Commitments. The music also borrows ideas from "When a Man Loves a Woman" by Percy Sledge.[18]

The single was released on 12 May 1967 (UK, Deram Records). It entered the UK charts on 25 May 1967. In two weeks, it had reached number one, where it stayed for six weeks. All in all, it stayed 15 weeks on the UK chart. A May 1972 re-release on Fly Records stayed in the UK charts for a total of 12 weeks, and reached number 13 as highest. In the US, it reached #5 and sold over one million copies.

Chart positions: # 1 (UK), # 1 (Germany) , # 1 (Ireland), # 1 (Australia), # 1 (World), # 3 (Norway VG-lista), # 5 (USA Hot 100)

Over time, "A Whiter Shade of Pale" has earned extensive critical acclaim.

It was named joint winner (along with Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody") of the Best British Pop Single 1952-1977 at the BRIT Awards, part of Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee.
#57 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time in 2004.
British TV station Channel 4 placed the song at #19 in its chart of the 100 greatest number one singles.[19