- failure to distinguish minimal pairs such as rich/reach, pack/puck or head/had
- inaudibility of unstressed vowels at the end of a word, e.g., part (for party)
- problems with diphthongs such as inhear/hair
- the inclusion of vowel sounds before, between or following consonants, e.g.,estrap (for strap) or monthes (for months)
- nasalization of the final /m/ or /n/, soran, for example, becomes rang
- the expected problems with words such as then, think or breathe
- failure to discriminate between words such as pig/big or gale/kale
- substitution of ear for hear or high for I.