sexta-feira, 30 de maio de 2014

No Pain, No Gain!


Mastering A Skill Makes Us Stressed In The Moment, Happy Long Term


No pain, no gain applies to happiness, too, according to new research published online in the Journal of Happiness Studies. People who work hard at improving a skill or ability, such as mastering a math problem or learning to drive, may experience stress in the moment, but experience greater happiness on a daily basis and longer term, the study suggests.

"No pain, no gain is the rule when it comes to gaining happiness from increasing our competence at something," said Ryan Howell, assistant professor of psychology at San Francisco State University. "People often give up their goals because they are stressful, but we found that there is benefit at the end of the day from learning to do something well. And what's striking is that you don't have to reach your goal to see the benefits to your happiness and well-being."

Contrary to previous research, the study found that people who engage in behaviors that increase competency, for example at work, school or the gym, experience decreased happiness in the moment, lower levels of enjoyment and higher levels of momentary stress. Despite the negative effects felt on an hourly basis, participants reported that these same activities made them feel happy and satisfied when they looked back on their day as a whole. This surprising find suggests that in the process of becoming proficient at something, individuals may need to endure temporary stress to reap the happiness benefits associated with increased competency.

The study examined whether people who spend time on activities that fulfill certain psychological needs, believed to be necessary for growth and well-being, experience greater happiness. In addition to the need to be competent, the study focused on the need to feel connected to others and to be autonomous or self-directed, and it examined how fulfilling these three needs affects a person's happiness moment by moment within a day.

For two days, participants reported how they spent each hour, the enjoyment and stress experienced in that hour, and whether the activity met their need for competency, connectedness to others or autonomy. A second group of participants completed a similar survey, but reported on the day as a whole.

While behaviors that increase competency were associated with decreased happiness in the moment, people who spent time on activities that met the need for autonomy or feeling connected to others experienced increased happiness both an hourly and daily basis. The greatest increase in momentary happiness was experienced by participants who engaged in something that met their need for autonomy -- any behavior that a person feels they have chosen, rather than ought to do, and that helps them further their interests and goals.

The authors suggest that shifting the balance of needs met in a day could help people find ways to cope with short term stress in the workplace. "Our results suggest that you can decrease the momentary stress associated with improving your skill or ability by ensuring you are also meeting the need for autonomy and connectedness, for example performing the activity alongside other people or making sure it is something you have chosen to do and is true to who you are," Howell said.

Relating these momentary gains in happiness to people's long term life satisfaction, the study found that those who are already satisfied with their life in the long term stand to gain most from the momentary happiness that is derived from feeling connected to others and a sense of autonomy.

"Like a wine connoisseur whose experience means they can appreciate a fine wine more than a novice, people who are already satisfied with their life may have learned how to glean the satisfaction of these needs from their daily activities," Howell said.

Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com
Journal Reference: 1.Howell et al. Momentary Happiness: The Role of Psychological Need Satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2009

quinta-feira, 29 de maio de 2014

Por que estudar inglês em Malta?



Ilha do Mediterrâneo é o destino mais barato para estudar inglês
Canadá, Estados Unidos, Irlanda, Austrália, Reino Unido… São esses os países que você provavelmente lembra quando pensa em um destino para estudar inglês, certo? Além deles, nos últimos anos a ilha de Malta, na Europa, vem atraindo cada vez mais estudantes brasileiros. Segundo recente pesquisa 220-802 da Associação Brasileira de Organizadores de Viagens Educacionais e Culturais (Belta), Malta aparece como um novo destino citado pelas agências. Entre 2012 e 2013, a busca por pacotes na ilha cresceu 75%. Apesar do alto valor percentual, os números absolutos — não divulgados — ainda são tímidos se comparados aos destinos tradicionais.


A pequena ilha de 316 quilômetros quadrados (similar à Fortaleza, no Ceará), no entanto, tem uma combinação de atrativos que pode levá-la a ser mais procurada nos próximos anos. “Entre todos os destinos de língua inglesa, Malta é o mais barato”, diz Neila Chammas, diretora de relações institucionais 200-120 da Belta. Um pacote de um mês pode custar cerca de R$ 3.700 reais. Para o Canadá o preço sobe para R$ 4 mil, em média. “Compensa também pelo fato de o custo de vida ser 30% mais baixo se comparado à Espanha, que é um destino barato”, diz Thiago España, diretor-geral da agência World Study, que enviou 330 brasileiros em 2012.


A diferença de centenas de reais pode parecer pouca, mas a localização lead2exam da ilha é outro diferencial. Malta está a 80 quilômetros da Sicília, na Itália, à leste da Tunísia e ao norte da Líbia, ambos na África. “Essa mistura reflete na riqueza da cultura local”, afirma España. A ilha é buscada, principalmente, por jovens de 16 a 19 anos, por conta do clima ensolarado e pela agitada vida noturna. Por ser uma pequena, é ideal para períodos curtos, de até 8 semanas.


Sua localização permite chegar facilmente a outros países da Europa. Companhias áreas de baixo custo, como a irlandesa Ryanair, agora tem voos a partir de lá. “Ainda assim é preciso se organizar com um pouco mais de antecedência, caso queira viajar para outros lugares”, avisa España.


Malta tem dois idiomas oficiais: o inglês e o maltês. A ilha foi domínio britânico até 1964, quando se tornou independente. O maltês é originário das heranças sicilianas e árabe. Para escolher sua escola, procure as credenciadas da Federation English Language Teaching Organisations Malta (Feltom). “Temos muito cuidado para vender pacotes para Malta, porque não é uma imersão 100% no inglês”, diz Neila. “Na rua e entre locais você vai escutar o maltês junto com o inglês.” Mas fique tranquilo: você vai falar inglês. Todos em Malta falam!

To go further: 


Relato de Giuliano Mischi 


Eu estive várias vezes em Malta e fui sempre muito bem recebido. O povo é muito hospitaleiro e estão habituados a receber pessoas de todo mundo: tem longa tradição de turismo e de cursos de Inglês.


Fui há 17 anos fazer curso (tinha 15) e voltei este ano, em Fevereiro. Nos últimos anos começou a ter muito Brasileiro estudando inglês, até tem grupo no FB chamado Brasileiros em Malta.


A Ilha


- É pequena e fácil de se visitar de transporte público ou com aquelas visitas organizadas (aconselho de barco) que não são muito caras. 
- O mar é limpo, água transparente e morna, ótimo para mergulhar! 
- O clima é muito quente no verão e mais suave no inverno 
- A ilha é segura, não tem criminalidade, pode andar a qualquer hora da noite 
- As duas cidades principais são Saint Julian e La Valletta (capital): S Julian tem todo tipo de bares, restaurantes e discotecas e é o centro da vida noturna, à noite tá cheio de galera de todo mundo se divertindo, Valletta é mais histórica e tem muita cultura, museus, monumentos.

A língua


- O inglês é a língua oficial e tem pronúncia britânica. mesmo assim tem muita gente que fala como segunda língua o Maltês, uma mistura de árabe (70%) inglês (15%) e italiano (15%).


O visto


não precisa até 3 meses, depois se tiver inscrição num curso pode pedir prolongamento sem dificuldades.


ode dar uma olhada no meu blogue, aqui tem as escolas em Malta http://pt.full-immersion.com/c...ês/escolas-ingles-malta/


e aqui conselhos úteis sobre visto, transportes, moeda, clima ecc.. : http://pt.full-immersion.com/e...


Aqui pode solicitar orçamento sem compromisso utilizando o calculador automático: http://pt.full-immersion.com/p...


Somos Italianos e trabalhamos há 3 anos com estudantes de Itália. Como eu estudei Português decidi traduzir o site e estamos a começar a trabalhar com estudantes Brasileiros e de outros países lusófonos. A vantagem é que nós fomos pessoalmente visitar todas as escolas que encontrará no site e que todo o serviço que fazemos de aconselhamento e informação é gratuito.


Agradecemos qualquer opinião ou crítica que nos ajude a melhorar o nosso serviço,


Abraço



Mind the gap!


Essa é uma daquelas expressões simples de entender, e ao mesmo tempo estranhas.

É simples porque significa “Cuidado com o degrau”, “Cuidado com o desnível” ou ainda “Preste atenção no desnível”. Nada de outro mundo.

Mas é estranha porque… que diabos quer dizer mind nesse contexto? Mind não significa mente?

Sim, exatamente. Mas como a palavra banco em português, que tem vários significados (banco para sentar, banco onde você guarda suas economias, banco de dados, banco de areia, e por aí vai), muitas palavras no Inglês possuem vários significados. E é sempre útil aprender mais um deles, não? Então vamos lá!

Mind como mente é um substantivo, ou seja, uma coisa. Mas mind tambem serve como um verbo, ou seja uma ação, que significa “tome cuidado, preste atenção, cuidado”. É mais usado no imperativo, ou seja, quando você “manda” alguém prestar atenção em algo. Veja mais um exemplo de uso:

Mind that door, it’s not large enough. (Cuidado com a porta, ela não é larga o suficiente).

Source: http://www.inglespraque.com/

****//\\****
Curiosity:

"Mind the gap" is a warning to train passengers of the gap between the train door and the station platform.

It was introduced in 1969 by the London Underground. The phrase is so associated with the Underground that Transport for London sells T-shirts with the phrase on a London Transport symbol.

Source: Wikipedia.

quarta-feira, 28 de maio de 2014

The Sweet History of Muffins


By Shauna Hanus

Muffin n. a small, cup-shaped bread, often sweetened and usually served hot.

The derivation of the word muffin comes from the French word moufflet which is often times applied to bread and means soft.

The two main types of muffins are English muffins and American style muffins. They vary in style as well as flavor and history.

English muffins are a flat yeast raised muffin with nooks and crannies that are cooked on a hot griddle. English muffin history dates all the way back to the 10th and 11th centuries in Wales. Early English muffins were cooked in muffin rings which were hooplike and placed directly on a stove or the bottom of a skillet.

American style muffins on the other hand are more of a quick bread that is made in individual molds. The molds are necessary due to the mixture being a batter rather than dough. These muffins were originally leavened with potash which produces carbon dioxide gas in the batter. When baking powder was developed around 1857 it put an end to the use of potash as well as to the profitable potash exports to the old country.

Muffin recipes first began to appear in print in the mid 18th century and quickly caught on. By the 19th century muffin men walked the streets of England at tea time to sell there muffins. They wore trays of English muffins on there heads and rang there bells to call customers to there wares.

Three states in the United States of America have adopted official muffins. Minnesota has adopted the blueberry muffin as the official state muffin. Massachusetts in 1986 adopted the Corn Muffin as the official state muffin. Then in 1987 New York took on the Apple Muffin as its official muffin of choice.

So next time you bite into a warm muffin think about its sweet history.

Shauna Hanus is a gourmet cook who specializes in creating gourmet recipes. She has extensive experience cooking with easy to find grocery items to create delightful gourmet meals. She is also the publisher of a no cost bi-monthly gourmet newsletter. Her newsletter is always fun and informational packed with tips and trivia you can use everyday. Sign up for her newsletter and learn more about Gourmayeats Weekly Recipe Club at http://www.gourmayeats.com

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Shauna_Hanus

terça-feira, 27 de maio de 2014

Memorable quotes from Elizabeth Town


Drew Baylor: [embracing] Please don't take this as rejection.
Claire Colburn: I really don't.

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[from trailer]
Hollie Baylor: Don't expect to be making any friends.
Heather Baylor: Drew doesn't have friends, Mom.
Drew Baylor: I have friends!

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Drew Baylor: I'm gonna have to call you back...
Heather Baylor: Okay, just dial HELL and i'll answer.

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Claire Colburn: Trust me. Everybody is less mysterious than they think they are.

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Claire Colburn: We peaked on the phone.

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text on an urn: KISS Forever

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Claire Colburn: I'm impossible to forget, but I'm hard to remember.

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Drew Baylor: So what are you doing right now?
Claire Colburn: [referring to Drew] I'm checking out this cute guy...
Drew Baylor: [disgusted face] Why are you telling me that?

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Drew Baylor: [voiceover] There's a diffrence between a failure and a fiasco. A failure is merely the absence of success. Any fool can achieve failure. But a fiasco, a fiasco is a disaster of epic propotions. A fiasco is a folk tale told to other's to make other people feel more alive because it didn't happen to them.

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Ellen Kishmore: Drew, it was real, and it was great, and it was really great.

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Bill Banyon: Is there such a thing as partial cremation?

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Claire Colburn: I'm one of a kind.

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Claire Colburn: Do you ever just think I'm fooling everybody?
Drew Baylor: You have no idea.

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Claire Colburn: Men see things in a box, and women see them in a round room.

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Claire Colburn: I think I've been asleep most of my life.
Drew Baylor: Me too.

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Claire Colburn: What they say is, it *will* hit you, it could be ten minutes or it could be ten years from now.

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Claire Colburn: [voiceover] Don't get lost!

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Drew Baylor: [on cremating his dad] That's the plan - that is the way it's gonna be guys! Sprinkled at sea!
Drew Baylor: [angrily] And that's the decision from California!
[then realising what he just said]
Drew Baylor: Shit, Oregon!
[men at table laughing]
Drew Baylor: We really are from Oregon!

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Claire Colburn: Hey, you're only 45 minutes away. You wanna meet halfway and see the sunrise? At this point it's probably easier to stay up!
Drew Baylor: You think so?
Claire Colburn: I think that's what "they" say!

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Drew Baylor: I see you right there. I see you right there.
Claire Colburn: There you are.

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Drew Baylor: You know, there is nothing greater than deciding in your life that things maybe really are black and white! And this guy Ben, who clearly takes you for granted, who serially takes advantage of you, is bad! And what I'm saying is good! See what I mean? You shouldn't be the substitute for anybody. This guy should be right here, right now, doing this
[kisses Claire]
Drew Baylor: .

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Drew Baylor: What is that word...? Whimsical!

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Claire Colburn: Most of the sex I've had in my life was not as personal as that kiss.

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Drew Baylor: No true fiasco ever began as a quest for mere adequacy. A motto of the British Special Air Force is: 'Those who risk, win.' A single green vine shoot is able to grow through cement. The Pacific Northwestern salmon beats itself bloody on it's quest to travel hundreds of miles upstream against the current, with a single purpose, sex of course, but also... life

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Drew Baylor: And don't worry. Because as great as you look tonight, you are safe with me.

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Claire Colburn: [voice over] Some music *needs* air. Roll down your window.

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Claire Colburn: I don't know a lot about everything, but I do know a lot about the part of everything that I know, which is people.

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Drew Baylor: And they all know me, and I don't know any of them. And I've never seen a dead body before.

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Drew Baylor: I've just recently decided that the things we know aren't black and white.

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Claire Colburn: And so we all became helpers, which I *so* can't help. I can't help helping.

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Claire Colburn: I've spent so much time thinking about all the answers to the problem, that I forget what the problem *actually* was.

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Drew Baylor: You're smart, you'll just wear your shoes and *never* ask any questions. Just enjoy your footwear.

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Claire Colburn: To have never taken a solitary road trip across country? I mean everybody's got to take a road trip, at least once in their lives. Just you and some music.

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Chuck Hasboro: Death and life. And death and life. Right *next door* to each other! There's like, there's a hair between them.

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Chuck Hasboro: Okay, it's all about family bro.
Drew Baylor: Thank you, Chuck.
[they hug]

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Drew Baylor: Did I miss 60B?

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Drew Baylor: Because we have a moment here, let me tell you that I have recently become a secret connoisseur of 'last looks'. You know the way people look at you when they believe it's for the last time? I've started collecting these looks.

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Drew Baylor: Can you imagine an entire life wrapped up in a shoe?

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Hollie Baylor: All forward motion counts.

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Claire Colburn: I want you to get into the deep beautiful melancholy of everything that's happened.

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Hollie Baylor: It takes time to be funny. It takes time to extract joy from life.

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Claire Colburn: I'm walking out the door... in last night's clothes.

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Claire Colburn: Hey, now we actually have a shot at being friends for the rest of our lives.
Drew Baylor: The rest of our lives... hm...

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Claire Colburn: Welcome to the annual meeting of people who annually meet, and we'll see ya'll next year.

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Claire Colburn: Sadness is easier because its surrender. I say make time to dance alone with one hand waving free.

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Claire Colburn: So you failed. Alright you really failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You failed. You think I care about that? I do understand. You wanna be really great? Then have the courage to fail big and stick around. Make them wonder why you're still smiling.

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Hollie Baylor: We were complete opposites and it worked. And something happened between us that was not part of the plan... we were in love.

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Drew Baylor: In that moment, I knew success, not greatness, was the only god the world served.

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Hollie Baylor: I was still waiting for everything to start, and now it's over.

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Claire Colburn: I'm going to miss your lips. And everything attached to them.

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Claire Colburn: You know, You're always trying to break up with me, and we're not even together.
Drew Baylor: I know... We're not?

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Drew Baylor: I'm fine.

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Jessie Baylor: This loss will be met with a hurricane of love.

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Jessie Baylor: I teach my kids about the things that really matter. I will teach them about Abraham Lincoln and Ronnie Van Zandt, because they are equally important in my house.

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Drew Baylor: You're great, Claire. Actually, you're kinda amazing.

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Claire Colburn: [after learning that Drew's father is Mitch] Ah, so you're a son of a Mitch.

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Claire Colburn: Never met a Mitch I didn't like. Fun, full of life. Like... everyone wants to be a part of Mitch's club.

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Drew Baylor: We should've taken this trip years ago.

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Hollie Baylor: [looking at a picture of Mitch] I love you. This is for you. Your favorite song on a Saturday night.
[Moon River plays]

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(text written on a cloth above the stage): If it wasn't this... it'd be something else.

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Drew Baylor: Beautiful night, does it ever cool off?
Jessie Baylor: No, this time of year its hotter than the hinges of hell, we got stars though...

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Hollie Baylor: A few days after Mitch died I was walking through the yard and I saw our neighbor who was a very good friend of Mitch's, Bob, and he saw me coming through the gate, and he said, "I am so sorry for your loss." And I knew that he needed to feel that loss, too, and to share it, and I wanted to help him. And he put his arms around me, he cradled me, and his embrace tighted. Finally, here was somebody who truly cared. And then, I felt something else.
[audience starts laughing]
Hollie Baylor: Some-thing huge.
[the laughing gets harder, Drew and Heather look embarrassed]
Hollie Baylor: Let's just say it, let's just say it. A BONER!

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Drew Baylor: [on phone] I am Currently stealing Chuck and Cindy's wedding beer.
Chuck Hasboro: You're a friend of Chuck's right?
Drew Baylor: Yes, yes I am
Chuck Hasboro: No you're not, I'm Chuck
Drew Baylor: ...Of... Chuck and Cindy?
Claire Colburn: [voiceover] Is that Chuck?
Drew Baylor: It's Chuck!

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Drew Baylor: And who says we have to listen to 'them'?
Claire Colburn: *They* do!

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Claire Colburn: Just tell me you love me and get it over with!

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Phil DeVoss: I am ill-equipt in the philosophies of failure.

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Claire Colburn: Life cannot be so cruel that we don't deserve to be together... to eat.

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Drew Baylor: By the way, I didn't say 'million,' I said 'billion.' A billion dollars; that's a lot of million.

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Claire Colburn: We are intrepid. We carry on.

segunda-feira, 26 de maio de 2014

JOB INTERVIEW: How do you reply to 'What are your strengths and weaknesses'?


Explaining Strengths and Weaknesses in an Interview

Nobody is perfect!!
You must remember that nobody is perfect and that this possible employer knows that.

A really great way of telling someone about a flaw is to always add a suggestion of improving that flaw. For example you could say, " I'm always told that I am a bit too slow... but that's only because I want to do the best job I can. I guess you could say I'm a bit anal when it comes to perfection." An employer can only look at that as being a great characteristic, and in no way a negative quality to possess.

Talking about your strengths is a tricky one; you do not want to come across as egotistical. From my interviewee, an excellent answer I like to get is this: " I am very headstrong. I really like to be challenged in my job, and I just want to learn as much as I can in my position. At the end of the day I need to be able to look back on my day and feel good about the job that I've done. I guess you could call it sense of self worth. That's why I always put my all into everything I do."

Here is more input and examples people have given for strengths:

•Your strengths should already be noted in your resume and cover letter. Go over them (i.e., the strengths) again with the interviewer.

•One of my biggest strengths is my communication skills. I work very well with all kinds of people, and understand that everyone has different perspectives about projects and work tasks -- so when I work with others I realize that everyone comes to the table with different priorities and objectives. I keep this in mind when I communicate tasks that need to be accomplished with positive reinforcement and awareness of what others are working on.

•A positive attitude will not differentiate you from the crowd. A good attitude is expected of every employee. Also you should back up what you say with an example. For example, don't just say you have good customer service skills prove it by also telling them how you won a comapny award or received positive customer comment letters for your good service.

•My strength is my flexibility to handle change. As customer service manager at my last job, I was able to turn around a negative working environment and develop a very supportive team.

•Hard worker.

•Punctual.

•Determined.

•Able to prioritize.

•Believe in myself; self-confidence.

•I have the ability to cope with failures and try to learn from my mistakes.

•I like to work in team and have been an active participant and organizer at several places.

•One of my greatest strengths I've acquired during my education is good analytical and planning skills. This has always benefited me to set goals and try to achieve them. But at the same time, I'm driven by the thoughts of success.

•Full commitment to my work.

•Highly energetic.

•Love to learn new things.

•Having good interpersonal skills.

•Well organized and like to be neat with all of my work.

•A good helper towards those who need it.

•I am a team player and work well with others.

•I have great communication skills

•I am a quick learner. I have great problem-solving skills and am willing to learn new things to get the job done.
Here are notes and examples of weaknesses:

•You should answer with things you "are improving upon". Example: I believe I should always be improving upon myself, good or bad. You are answering the dreaded question without looking like an egotistical maniac, and showing the interviewer that you see yourself as a work in progress, trying to better all of your qualities.

For your weakness, just pick one that is not going to disqualify you from the job, and then follow up with -- this what really matters -- the examples of what you are doing (or have done) to fix your weakness. The most important point here is to show that you learn from your mistakes and your weakness, and you are taking the corrective action to fix the situation -- and stress that! For example, if the job does not require public speaking, you can say that your weakness is you are afraid of speaking in front of the public. Then tell the interviewers that you have joined a Toastmaster club or public speech course to overcome the problem. Remind them that when you identify a problem, you actively take actions to correct it, and that is how you do things.

•Don't try to use a cliche or try to present a strength as a weakness by saying your weakness is that you are a workaholic. No one will believe that answer. Being too emotional will make the recruiter wonder if your interpersonal skills are lacking. Give a true weakness but one of modest size. Shows that you have taken steps to correct the weakness. For example you want to improve your MS Excel skills so you are taking a course on that now.

•I used to have trouble with procrastinating, now I have learned to write down a list of things that I need to do, and keep a calender to keep track of deadlines, I have found that this not only helps me to finish things on time, but it has also helped me to be more organized.

•A weakness of mine would be the fact that I get nervous when speaking in front of groups. I haven't had a lot of experience with this over the past several years. Although I did join Toastmasters International to help overcome this anxiety -- and feel much more confident today when I need to speak in front of groups and give presentations.

•For my weakness, I always say that some people say I'm over-friendly. You can't go wrong with that one. Usually, the person interviewing is like " oh, that's not a bad thing at all". BUahahhahahhah ( evil laugh).

•I'm little egoistic when it comes to winning things and get a little ruthless too.

•Lose patience sometimes when I am not in a position to complete the assigned job in time.

•I have to work on having more patience and giving myself a break because I always want everything done at once.

•Tend to go to any limits while helping my friends.

•I am too focused on my work and I need to find more time to relax.

•I'm too focused on work and need to develop some after hours hobbies.
And examples of combination strength-weakness answers:


•I'm a workaholic person and love to dedicate myself to the work I'm doing. But at the same time I forget to keep a balance between other things which I'm trying to improve on.

•Take whatever is your best quality and also describe it as your worst. It often is, as we are all made up like two sides of a coin. Try it out with different qualities and accomplishments and see how it works. For example ... The best thing about me is that I am able to see the big picture in a situation. The worst thing about me is that I can see the big picture in a situation. This is the best thing because I can remove myself from the emotion of a decision that needs to be made and act accordingly. It is a bad thing because I often can see the conclusion quicker than the other participants in a project and that can cause frustration sometimes amongst them.

•My strength is my flexibility to handle change. As Software developer at my last job, I was able to turn around a negative working environment and develop a very supportive team. Always turn weakness into a positive. If you lack experience or skills for example state this but also state that you are willing to learn, or that it is an area which you would like to improve on.

Example:
"I do not have much experience with customer service, but I would like to gain experience in this area. I get along well with people, I am able to listen and am a good communicator so I feel that I would get on well in a customer based environment."

Example:
"I am not too experienced with computers, but I am always willing to learn new skills. I have used computers a little in the past and this is one area which I would like to improve on. I am usually very quick at picking up new skills especially when it is something that I need to learn"Notes on interviewing

•This question unfortunately has become a staple in the interview process and is an easy way out for an interviewer who can't think of any other questions. The reason this is a bad question is simply this: If someone has a weakness that could jeopardize his chance of getting the job, he will never reveal it. So the only answers that this question receives are false answers intended to placate the interviewer. A good interviewer won't ask this question. I'm always tempted to answer this way: "Mr. Interviewer, I always have a hard time with that question. What would your answer be to the question?"

•A good interviewer wouldn't dream of asking someone this question. As the interviewer, you will not get truthful answers from the weakness part of the question, and as the interviewee, you can end up coming across as egotistical and boastful when answering about your stengths. A good interviewer shouldn't want to make you uncomfortable.

Answer Sample"My strengths are my ability to be flexible; I've seen companies go through changes in structure and management philosophy. I've had to adjust my style to the new environment several times. My weakness is my tendency to over-work so I pace myself now."

The key is to turn the weakness -- a negative character trait -- into something positive.


No trick: Honesty is the best policy
Whatever you do, tell the truth. While there are certainly answers that interviewers prefer to hear, it has to match reality. Why? First, it's generally not good to get hired for a job that you're not matched well for. If you like new, exciting, dynamic situations but you're looking for a job on an assembly line, you're not going to be happy; saying that you like repetitive work doesn't make sense. Second, any good interviewer will check your references. If your answers don't match what they hear, you're almost certain to lose the chance for job.

Don't ever list as a weakness the following: "I take on too many things and work to hard, and just don't know where to stop." It's a cliche, completely transparent, and I can tell you that it rarely makes the desired impression.

Another opinionThis question is usually asked by prospective employers from candidates applying to them for employment. To answer this question the following procedure should be helpful:

1) Find out what nature of work "the team" in question does.

2) Assuming you are interested in that type of work, list what formal training courses you have taken and qualifications acquired in that field or a related field. Next, mention whatever practical experience you in the field. List any relevant worthwhile achievements you have made. Such specifics will carry lot of weight.

3) As a general plus point, say that you are a team worker and get on well with others, if you feel this is true.


An interviewer's perspectiveI ask this question and whenever I get an answer like "I work too hard" I know I'm dealing with somebody that I can't really trust, and that I'm going to have a hard time developing an open and honest working relationship with. And I know that I still don't know the person's other weaknesses.

At least with me, an interviewee has a much better chance if I think he or she is honestly telling me about a weakness. And then I can decide whether or not I can work around that weakness. One person told me that he needs fixed deadlines because otherwise he keeps finding additional things to add and it's hard for him to finish the project. I decided this was something I could live with and I hired him. We all have weaknesses. And if you think you're going to outsmart me with bs or evasion, you're hurting your chances with me.

sexta-feira, 23 de maio de 2014

Por que crianças aprendem melhor Inglês?


A IDADE E O APRENDIZADO DE LÍNGUAS

Escrito por Ricardo Schütz


Já na Babilônia e no antigo Egito o homem procurava entender a complexidade de suas habilidades cognitivas, e especialmente a capacidade de assimilar e usar línguas.

Hoje, o que se aceita de forma geral, com base no que as ciências da neurolingüística, da psicologia e da lingüística oferecem, é uma série de hipóteses que procuram explicar esta habilidade exclusiva do ser humano. Essas hipóteses são resultado de estudos científicos que ajudam a explicar, não só o desempenho cognitivo do ser humano, mas também as diferenças entre crianças e adultos.

A IDADE CRÍTICA

Parece não haver dúvida de que existe uma idade crítica, a partir da qual o aprendizado começa a ficar mais difícil e o teto começa a baixar. Este período parece situar-se entre os 12 e os 14 anos, podendo entretanto variar muito conforme a pessoa e, principalmente, conforme as características do ambiente lingüístico em que o aprendizado ocorre. As limitações que começam a se manifestar a partir da puberdade são fundamentalmente de pronúncia, como mostra o gráfico ao lado.

O estudo dos diferentes fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento cognitivo do ser humano pode ajudar a explicar o fenômeno da idade crítica. Os principais fatores são:

fatores biológicos
fatores cognitivos
fatores de ordem afetiva
o ambiente e o input lingüístico

FATORES BIOLÓGICOS

Os órgãos diretamente envolvidos na habilidade lingüística do ser humano são o cérebro, o aparelho auditivo e o aparelho articulatório (cordas vocais, cavidades bucal e nasal, língua, lábios, dentes). Destes, sem dúvida, o cérebro é o mais importante.

A hipótese da lateralização do cérebro - Pesquisas no campo da neurologia demonstram que os dois hemisférios cerebrais desempenham diferentes funções. O lado esquerdo é o lado lógico, analítico; enquanto que o direito é o lado criativo, artístico, sensível à música, responsável pelas emoções e especializado em percepção e construção de modelos e estruturas de conhecimento. O hemisfério direito seria, por assim dizer, a porta de entrada das experiências e a área de processamento dessas experiências para transformá-las em conhecimento.
Sabe-se também que a lateralização do cérebro ocorre a partir da puberdade. Ou seja, no cérebro de uma criança os dois hemisférios estão mais interligados do que no cérebro de um adulto, correspondendo esta interligação ao período de aprendizado máximo. A assimilação da língua ocorreria via hemisfério direito para ser sedimentada no hemisfério esquerdo como habilidade permanente. Portanto, o desempenho superior das crianças estaria relacionado à maior interação entre os dois hemisférios cerebrais.

Acuidade auditiva - É sabido que crianças e adolescentes possuem uma acuidade auditiva superior. Fato curioso e ilustrativo disto, é a recente controvérsia na Inglaterra a respeito de um dispositivo, lançado no mercado em 2006, que emite um son desagradável aos ouvidos, som este que só crianças e jovens de até 25 anos conseguem ouvir. O aparelho tem sido usado para evitar aglomeração de jovens frente a lojas, escolas, etc. Notícia recentemente publicada em um site de notícias diz:
Ultrasonic anti-teen device - Feb 12, 2008
The creators of a pioneering device that uses high-frequency sound to stop teenagers congregating outside shops, schools and railway stations reacted angrily today to news that the government-appointed Children's Commissioner wants to see it banned.
The £500 Mosquito device has been installed at some 3,500 locations across the country since it first went on sale in January 2006. It emits an irritating, high-pitched sound that can only be heard by children and young people up into their early twenties, forcing them to move on.
(Their sound causes discomfort to young ears - but their frequency is above the normal hearing range of people over 25.)
But Sir Albert Aynsley-Green, the Children's Commissioner for England appointed to represent the views of the country’s 11 million children, has set up a campaign – called Buzz Off – that is calling for the Mosquito to be banned on grounds that it infringes the rights of young people.

Meanwhile in the US students are using a new ring tone to receive messages in class — and many teachers can't even hear the ring.
Some students are downloading a ring tone off the Internet that is too high-pitched to be heard by most adults. With it, high schoolers can receive text message alerts on their cell phones without the teacher knowing.
As people age, many develop what's known as aging ear — a loss of the ability to hear higher-frequency sounds.

Além da capacidade auditiva superior, uma provável maior flexibilidade muscular do aparelho articulatório também ajudaria a explicar o fenômeno da marcante superioridade infantil no processo de assimilação de línguas.

FATORES COGNITIVOS

Formação da matriz fonológica - O adulto monolíngüe, por já possuir uma matriz fonológica sedimentada, se caracteriza por uma sensibilidade auditiva amortecida, treinada a perceber e produzir apenas os fonemas do sistema de sua língua materna. A criança, por sua vez, ainda no início de seu desenvolvimento cognitivo, com filtros menos desenvolvidos e hábitos menos enraizados, mantém a habilidade de expandir sua matriz fonológica, podendo adquirir um sistema enriquecido por fonemas de línguas estrangeiras com as quais vier a ter contato.

Assimilação natural x extudo formal - Uma diferença importante entre crianças e adultos quanto à suas habilidades cognitivas, é que o adulto já passou por grande parte de seu desenvolvimento cognitivo. Com um caminho maior já percorrido e uma bagagem maior acumulada, o adulto tem a capacidade de lidar com conceitos abstratos e hipotéticos, enquanto que a cognição das crianças, ainda em fase de construção, depende fundamentalmente de experiências concretas, de percepção direta. Isto explica a capacidade superior dos adultos de compreender a estrutura gramatical da língua estrangeira e de compará-la à de sua língua materna. Explica também a tolerância superior dos adultos quando submetidos a situações artificiais com o propósito de exercitarem línguas estrangeiras, bem como a tendência de buscar simples transferências no plano de vocabulário, com ajuda de dicionários.

Stephen Krashen, em sua hipótese learning/acquisition, estabelece uma distinção clara entre learning (estudo formal - receber e acumular informações e transformá-las em conhecimento por meio de esforço intelectual e de capacidade de raciocínio lógico) e acquisition (desenvolver habilidades funcionais através de assimilação natural, intuitiva, inconsciente, nas situações reais e concretas de ambientes de interação humana) e sustenta a predominância de acquisition sobre learning no desenvolvimento de proficiência em línguas.

Krashen defende a importância maior de acquisition sobre learning referindo-se a adolescentes e adultos. Considerando que acquisition está mais intimamente ligado aos processos cognitivos do ser humano na infância, é lógico e evidente deduzirmos que acquisition é ainda mais preponderante no caso do aprendizado de crianças.

Portanto, se proficiência lingüística pouco depende de conhecimento armazenado, mas sim de habilidade assimilada na prática, construída através de experiências concretas, fica com mais clareza explicada a superioridade das crianças no aprendizado de línguas.

A HIPÓTESE DA HARPAZ

A hipótese de Harpaz é a mais esclarecedora. A aquisição da fala e a descoberta do mundo são processos paralelos para a criança. A interação lingüística da qual a criança participa proporciona a maioria dos dados nesse processo de desenvolvimento cognitivo. Como conseqüência, as estruturas neurais no cérebro que correspondem aos conceitos que vão sendo aprendidos acabam naturalmente e intimamente associadas às estruturas neurais que correspondem às formas da língua.

Quando um adulto aprende uma língua estrangeira, seus conceitos (já formados) já possuem estruturas neurais fixas associadas às formas da língua materna. As estruturas neurais correspondentes às novas formas da língua estrangeira não possuem relação com as estruturas dos conceitos já formados, sendo esta uma associação mais difícil de ser estabelecida. É por isto que, no aprendizado de adultos, as dificuldades causadas pela interferência da língua materna são maiores.

A respeito do aprendizado de línguas na infância e da interferência da língua materna, Harpaz diz:

Humans are born with an ability to comprehend and generate all kinds of phonemes, but during childhood (starting from birth, and maybe before) this ability is shaped by experience such that only the phonemes of the native language are easily comprehended and generated. In adults, these abilities are much less plastic, so adult learners of a new language find it specially difficult to comprehend and generate the phonemes of the new language that are not used in their native language.

At the time of learning to speak, the child learns to understand the world, and linguistic interaction forms most of the data in this learning. As a result, the learned neural structures that correspond to concepts tend to be associated with the neural structures that correspond to the words (by Hebbian mechanisms).

When an older person learns a language, the concepts already have neural structures, which are quite fixed. The neural structures corresponding to the words in the new language, which are determined by the perceptual input, have no relations to the former structures, and hence the association is relatively difficult to learn.

In learning a new language, the learner is not only required to perform new sequences of mental and motoric operations, but is also required not to perform the old ones. The old sequences are very thoroughly learned through practice, so it is very difficult to avoid performing them. Thus older second language learners find it very difficult not to slip back into their old language, both in terms of motoric actions (pronunciation) and mental actions (syntax structures, phrases etc.). For a young child, this is much less of a problem, because his/her language performance is much less practiced.

(Harpaz, Yehouda. http://human-brain.org/myths.html. Online. Dec 1, 2007)

FATORES AFETIVOS E PSICOLÓGICOS

A hipótese conhecida como affective filter, também de Stephen Krashen, explica que fatores de ordem psicológico-afetiva podem causar um impacto direto na capacidade de aprendizado, tais como:

desmotivação: é a ausência de motivo espontâneo, causada por programas não autenticados pela presença da cultura estrangeira e que não representam desafio. Também freqüentemente causada pela frustração de não se ter alcançado proficiência através do estudo formal ou pelo insucesso em sistemas de avaliação (exames, notas, etc.). Experiências anteriores de resultados negativos, podem desencorajar o aluno de uma nova tentativa. Aquele que não se identifica com a cultura estrangeira, - ou que às vezes até a despreza, - normalmente por falta de informação a respeito da mesma, estará desmotivado para aprender sua língua. Já a criança, por natureza tem um alto grau de curiosidade pelo desconhecido e forte sintonia com tudo no ambiente que a rodeia.

perfeccionismo: tendência a preocupar-se excessivamente com a forma, e idéia radicalizada do conceito de certo e errado em se tratando de línguas. A pessoa prefere não correr o risco de cometer deslizes.

falta de autoconfiança: talvez causada por traumas durante a educação recebida em casa ou na escola, e pela radicalização do conceito de certo e errado em se tratando de línguas. A pessoa que tem uma boa imagem de si próprio e autoconfiança, é por natureza mais experimentador e descobridor.

dependência da eloqüência: A precisão e elegância no falar é uma conquista alcançada ao longo da vida, fruto de uma carreira acadêmica. Essa habilidade com nossa língua materna representa segurança e poder, dos quais é difícil abrir mão. Isso torna a tarefa de começar de novo na língua estrangeira, do quase nada, de forma rudimentar, como se pouco inteligente fôssemos, extremamente frustrante.

autoconsciência: consciência da própria imagem; capacidade de imaginar o que os outros podem pensar e preocupar-se com isso.

ansiedade: causada pela expectativa excessiva de obtenção de resultados.

provincianismo: atitude de se fechar naquilo com que se identifica, seu jeito de ser e de falar; de se sentir inseguro fora deles - problema freqüentemente observado em adolescentes.

Ora, todos esses bloqueios são resultado da vida pregressa do indivíduo, podendo ocorrer portanto unicamente em adolescentes e principalmente adultos. Fica, pois, novamente evidenciado que as crianças, ainda livres de tais bloqueios, devem ter uma capacidade de assimilação superior à dos adultos.

O AMBIENTE E O INPUT LINGÜÍSTICO

Krashen, em sua comprehensible input hypothesis, sustenta que assimilação de línguas ocorre em situações reais, quando a pessoa está exposta a uma linguagem que esteja um pouco acima (não muito acima) de sua capacidade de entendimento. Ora, é natural que quando adultos se dirigem à crianças, usam um linguajar próprio, modificado tanto no plano estrutural como no vocabulário, para se aproximar ao nível de compreensão da criança. Já nos ambientes em que adultos vivem, eles não recebem o mesmo tipo de tratamento. Uma vez que são adultos, seu universo de pensamento e linguagem é mais amplo; ou seja, o caminho já desbravado é maior e a linguagem, por eles almejada e a eles dirigida, tende a ser mais complexa e os conceitos mais abstratos, facilmente se situando além de seu nível de entendimento.

Desta forma, podemos concluir que os ambientes de convívio das crianças são, por natureza, mais propícios ao aprendizado de línguas do que os ambientes dos adultos.

CONCLUSÕES:

Linguagem é um elemento de relacionamento humano e todos desenvolvem proficiência em línguas estrangeiras mais através de acquisition (desenvolvimento de habilidades através de assimilação natural, intuitiva, inconsciente, em ambientes de interação humana) do que de learning (estudo formal - memorizar informações e transformá-las em conhecimento através de esforço intelectual), especialmente crianças. Portanto, línguas não podem ser ensinadas, mas serão aprendidas se houver o ambiente apropriado.

Crianças assimilam línguas com mais facilidade, porém têm grande resistência ao aprendizado formal, artificial e dirigido. As crianças, mais do que os adultos, precisam e se beneficiam de contato humano para desenvolver suas habilidades lingüísticas. Entretanto, se perceberem que a pessoa que deles se aproxima fala a língua materna, dificilmente se submeterão à difícil e frustrante artificialidade de usar outro meio de comunicação. Elas só procuram assimilar e fazer uso da língua estrangeira em situações de autêntica necessidade, desenvolvendo sua habilidade e construindo seu próprio aprendizado a partir de situações reais de interação em ambiente da língua e da cultura estrangeira. Portanto, a autenticidade do ambiente, principalmente na pessoa do facilitador, é mais importante do que o caráter das atividades (lúdicas ou não), e ambos são mais importantes do que qualquer planificação didática predeterminada.

O ritmo de assimilação das crianças é mais rápido e, o teto, mais alto.

Existe uma idade crítica (12 a 14 anos), a partir da qual o ser humano gradativamente perde a capacidade de assimilar línguas ao nível de língua materna. Essa perda é mais perceptível na pronúncia. Até os 12 ou 14 anos de idade, a criança que tiver contato suficiente com o idioma, o assimilará de forma tão completa quanto a língua materna.

No nosso caso (brasileiros que vivem no Brasil), onde ambientes autênticos de língua e cultura estrangeira são raros, decisões a respeito do aprendizado de inglês de crianças devem ser baseadas menos na idade e mais na oportunidade. De nada adiantará colocar a criança cedo em contato com uma língua estrangeira se o modelo oferecido for caracterizado por desvios e ausência de valores culturais – é melhor esperar por uma oportunidade melhor.

É grande a responsabilidade ao se colocar crianças, que ainda não atingiram a idade crítica, em clubes, cursinhos ou escolinhas que oferecem inglês. Se os instrutores tiverem uma proficiência limitada, com sotaque e outros desvios que normalmente caracterizam aquele que não é nativo, todos os desvios serão transferidos à criança, podendo causar danos irreversíveis a seu potencial de assimilação. Seria como colocar a gema bruta nas mãos de um lapidador aprendiz.

Atividades que expõem a criança prematuramente ao sistema ortográfico do inglês, o qual se caracteriza por extrema irregularidade e acentuado contraste em relação ao português, são prejudiciais. Veja Correlação Ortografia x Pronúncia.

Uma vez que o momento ideal de se alcançar proficiência em línguas estrangeiras é a idade escolar e, sendo bilingüismo uma qualificação básica do indivíduo na sociedade moderna, compete às escolas de ensino fundamental e médio proporcionar ambientes autênticos de language acquisition.

É grande a responsabilidade do poder público em abrir urgentemente as fronteiras culturais, facilitando a vinda de falantes nativos de línguas estrangeiras através de um enquadramento legal específico e burocracia simplificada, bem como incentivando a criação de organizações voltadas a intercâmbio lingüístico e cultural e promovendo a isenção fiscal das mesmas.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA

Bialystok, Ellen. "Effects of Bilingualism and Biliteracy on Children's Emerging Concepts of Print". Developmental Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 3.
Brown, H. Douglas. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Prentice Hall Regents, 1994.
Clampitt, Sharon. Age and the Acquisition Process. Inter American University of Puerto Rico.
Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1974.
Harpaz, Yehouda. "Myths and misconceptions in Cognitive Science". Human Cognition in the Human Brain. . Online. Nov 1, 2003.
Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Hall International, 1987.
Krashen, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Prentice-Hall International, 1988.

Fonte: Schütz, Ricardo. "A Idade e o Aprendizado de Línguas." English Made in Brazil . Online. 24 de fevereiro de 2008.

quinta-feira, 22 de maio de 2014

Tradução Mental

TRADUÇÃO MENTAL

(A RECEITA QUE NÃO DÁ CERTO)
Ricardo Schütz

Fonte: http://www.sk.com.br

O fenômeno popularmente conhecido como "tradução mental" é uma forma de interferência da língua materna na língua alvo. A tendência de apelar para traduções mentais é a atitude natural de toda a pessoa monolíngue, ao se deparar com uma língua estrangeira. A persistência deste hábito entretanto é sintoma de que algo vai mal. Revela que o direcionamento, a estratégia de aprendizado está errada.

O monolíngue é aquele cuja mente só funciona nas formas da língua materna. O aprendizado de uma língua estrangeira como inglês, por sua vez, consiste essencialmente na eliminação da interferência da língua materna - no nosso caso o português. Consiste na substituição das formas (pronúncia, vocabulário e estruturas) do português pelas formas (muito diferentes) do inglês. Se estivéssemos aprendendo espanhol ou italiano, poderíamos aproveitar muito da nossa habilidade linguística num processo mais de transferência e adaptação do que substituição. Sendo entretanto inglês nosso objetivo, uma língua que apresenta um nível de contraste muito mais acentuado em relação ao português, seu aprendizado implica em reaprender a estruturar nosso pensamento, dessa vez nas formas do inglês. Seria como que, parcialmente, reaprender a pensar.

Portanto, no caso específico de brasileiros aprendendo inglês, o método da tradução prematura, assim como praticado no ensino médio, é contraproducente. O mesmo erro pode ser observado também em cursos de inglês que transferem a ideia da tradução para os exercícios orais dos estágios iniciais. Parece muito fácil, mas vicia e direciona para o lado errado. Ensinar a traduzir rapidamente poderia ser comparado ao ato de ensinar a andar de bicicleta em bicicleta de três rodas.

O depoimento de Marília Conte Daros, uma professora de inglês que iniciou seus estudos no Brasil, ilustra bem o problema:

In my case, I had a hard time becoming fluent in the second language because of the interference of two factors. The first factor was learning strategy, which was translating (L2 to L1 to L2 again) due the fact that my foreign language classes focused on The Grammar Translation approach. It was a slow strategy that caused me a lot of headaches and frustration. I spent a whole year translating while I was an exchange student. The second interference was low self-esteem, the belief of not being able to produce L2, due to the oppressed education I experienced in undergraduate school in Brazil. Professors believed that low grades reflect a hard school (meaning "good"), so nothing was good enough. Undergraduate students got to graduation scared to use the target language. (Disponível em: http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~gurney/LangConn.htm).

Este depoimento revela claramente não só o erro a que nos referimos, como também a incapacidade do aprendiz em perceber o erro do caminho que lhe apontaram. Se uma pessoa inteligente como a Prof. Marília levou anos para perceber a ineficácia da metodologia que seguia, como é que nós, muitas vezes profissionais de outras áreas, vamos conseguir avaliar o método de ensino que nos promete milagres? Isto também demonstra a capciosidade do apelo comercial de cursos que oferecem uma "aula demonstrativa".

Em resumo, a habilidade de se falar uma língua fluentemente, já exige nosso cérebro ao limite. Não há cérebro humano que consiga processar duas línguas simultaneamente. (O caso de tradução simultânea não serve como exemplo porque quando tradutores-intérpretes atuam, eles não estão desempenhando criativamente.) Por isso é que o bom aprendizado de inglês, desde o primeiro dia de aula, não inclui a língua materna.

quarta-feira, 21 de maio de 2014

EU ODEIO O PRESENT PERFECT

EU ODEIO O PRESENT PERFECT

From English Experts.com.br

por Adir em 15/10/2007

Howdy, everybody! How y´all doing?

Saudações no melhor estilo sulista americano!

Começamos nossa Semana da Gramática com um assunto temido por muitos alunos e também (pasmem!) por muitos professores: o Present Perfect! Já li que ele é a “pedra no sapato” de muitos alunos e um monte de outras coisas, mas vou tentar ser o mais simples e conciso aqui, right?

OK, let’s start!

Lembrem-se que ele se chama Present Perfect por uma razão: tem sempre algo relacionado com o presente de quem fala ou da situação da qual se fala. Comecemos com alguns exemplos:

I have lost my car keys. (Perdi as chaves do meu carro. Não estou com elas agora, portanto não posso entrar no carro.)

Have you done your homework? (Fizeram a tarefa? – Pergunta a professora querendo ver a tarefa feita agora.)

I have broken a glass. (Quebrei um copo. Há cacos de vidro por todos os lugares.)

Why can´t John buy that new car? – He has lost his job. (Por que John não pode comprar aquele carro novo? – Ele perdeu seu emprego. Agora não tem dinheiro para comprar o carro.)

Viram a conexão entre o passado e o presente?

Let´s continue …

O Present Perfect também é usado com uma série de advérbios:

JUST: indica que a ação acabou de acontecer. He has just finished doing his homework. (Ele acabou de terminar de fazer sua tarefa.)

EVER: alguma vez na vida. Have you ever gone hiking in the mountains? (Você já foi fazer trilha nas montanhas?)

ALREADY: já (nas frases afirmativas). I have already been to China. (Eu já estive na China.)

NEVER: nunca. I have never seen such a beautiful thing. (Nunca vi coisa tão Linda.)

YET: 1. já (quando se espera que a resposta seja afirmativa) – Have you done the dishes yet? (Já lavou a louça? – Era esperado que você a lavasse.) – 2. ainda (em frases negativas) – No, I haven´t done the dishes yet. (Não, não lavei a louça ainda.)

SINCE – desde. I have been a teacher since 1992. (Sou professor desde 1992.)

FOR – há, por, faz. I haven´t seen him for a long time. (Não o vejo há/por/faz muito tempo.)

DICAS:

1. Quando a pergunta contiver WHEN nunca use o Present Perfect, sempre use o Simple Past: When did you start studying English?

2. O Present Perfect também é usado para indicar a quantidade de vezes que a pessoa faz algo. Por exemplo:
This is the first time I´ve come here. (É a primeira vez que venho aqui.)

– She hasn´t been here lately. (Ela não tem vindo aqui ultimamente.)

Postem suas dúvidas que respondo ASAP (as soon as possible)!

Take care!

terça-feira, 20 de maio de 2014

Richard Bach Quotes


- The gull sees farthest who flies highest.

- For most gulls, it is not flying that matters, but eating. For this gull, though, it was not eating that mattered, but flight.

- Fly free and happy beyond birthdays and across forever, and we'll meet now and then when we wish, in the midst of the one celebration that never can end.
Fernão Capelo Gaivota
- I gave my life to become the person I am right now. Was it worth it?

- You are never given a wish without also being given the power to make it true.
The Bridge Across Forever: A Lovestory
- Here is a test to find whether your mission on Earth is finished: If you're alive, it isn't.

- Learning is finding out what you already know. Doing is demonstrating that you know it. Teaching is reminding others that they know just as well as you. You are all learners, doers, and teachers.

- Your friends will know you better in the first minute you meet than your acquaintances will know you in a thousand years.

- The mark of your ignorance is the depth of your belief in injustice and tragedy. What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the master calls a butterfly.

- Don't turn away from possible futures before you're certain you don't have anything to learn from them.
Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah

(The following presentation is from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

This article is about the author of Jonathan Livingston Seagull.
Richard David Bach (b. June 23, 1936, Oak Park, Illinois) is an American writer. He is widely known as the author of the 1972 best-selling novel, Jonathan Livingston Seagull, and the movie based on the book. He is noted for his love of flying and for his books related to air flight and flying in a metaphorical context. He has pursued flying as a hobby since the age of 17.

Life and work
Richard Bach attended Long Beach State College in 1955. He has authored numerous works of fiction and nonfiction, including Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1970), Illusions (1977), One (1989), and Out of My Mind (1999). Most of his books have been semi-autobiographical, using actual or fictionalized events from his life to illustrate his philosophy.

He served in the Air Force Reserve as a pilot, and afterwards worked a variety of jobs. He later became a barnstormer. Most of his books involve flight in some way, from the early stories which are straightforwardly about flying aircraft to his later works in which he used flight as a philosophical metaphor.

In 1972, Jonathan Livingston Seagull was published by Macmillan Publishers after the manuscript was turned down by several other publishers. The book, which included unique photos of seagulls in flight, became a number one best-seller on both the fiction and non-fiction lists. The book contained fewer than 10,000 words, yet it broke all hardcover sales records since Gone With the Wind. It sold more than 1,000,000 copies in 1972 alone. The surprise success of the book was widely reported in the media in the early 1970s.

In 1973, Jonathan Livingston Seagull, a story about a seagull who flew for the sake of flying rather than merely to catch food, was turned into a movie produced by Paramount Pictures Corporation. The movie included a soundtrack by Neil Diamond.

Bach's book, Illusions, published in 1977, is now in the movie-production phase (2006). It is being directed by French filmmaker Yann Samuell. For more information, visit http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0421271/.

Bach has retained a dedicated fan base throughout the years. During the 1990s, Bach appeared online at Compuserve, where he answered e-mails personally. The website has since disappeared.

Bach had six children with his first wife, Bette. They divorced in 1970.

His second wife was actress Leslie Parrish, whom he met during the shooting of the movie Jonathan Livingston Seagull in 1973. They married in 1981 and his book, The Bridge Across Forever, is based on their courtship. They divorced and he has since remarried. He currently resides on the San Juan Islands in Washington State.


Philosophy
Bach espouses a consistent philosophy in his books: Our true nature is not bound by space or time, we are expressions of the Is, we are not truly born nor truly die, and we enter this world of Seems and Appearances for fun, learning, to share experiences with those we care for, to explore - and most of all to learn how to love and love again.

Divorce
Of his divorce, Richard Bach wrote:

"Leslie and I are no longer married. Soul mates, to me, don't define themselves by legal marriage. There's a learning connection that exists between those two souls. Leslie and I had that for the longest time, and then a couple of years ago, she had this startling realization. She said, 'Richard, we have different goals!' I was yearning for my little adventures and looking forward to writing more books. Leslie has worked all her life long, and she wanted peace, she wanted to slow the pace, not complicate it, not speed it up. Not money, not family, no other men or other women, separated us. We wanted different futures. She was right for her. I was right for me. Finally it came time for us to make a choice. We could save the marriage and smother each other: 'You can't be who you want to be.' Or we could separate and save the love and respect that we had for each other. We decided the marriage was the less important. And now we're living separate lives.
"I believe that Leslie and I were led to find each other, led through the years we lived together, and led to part. There's so much to learn! When a marriage comes to an end, we're free to call it a failure. We're also free to call it a graduation. We didn't say, 'I guess we weren't led to each other, I guess we're not soul mates after all.' Our graduation was part of the experience we chose before we were born, to learn how to let each other go." [5]

Books
Bach, Richard, "Stranger to the Ground" (1963) Dell reprint (1990), ISBN 0-440-20658-8
Bach, Richard, "Biplane" (1966) Dell Reprint (1990), ISBN 0-440-20657-X
Bach, Richard, "Nothing by Chance" (1969) Dell Reprint 1990, ISBN 0-440-20656-1
Bach, Richard "Jonathan Livingston Seagull" (1970) Macmillan, ISBN 0-380-01286-3
Bach, Richard, "A Gift of Wings" (1974) Dell Reissue (1989), ISBN 0-440-20432-1
Bach, Richard, "There's No Such Place As Far Away" (1976) Delta (1998), ISBN 0-385-31927-4
Bach, Richard, "Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah" (1977, ISBN 0-385-28501-9
Bach, Richard, "The Bridge Across Forever: A Love Story" (1984) Dell Reissue (1989), ISBN 0-440-10826-8
Bach, Richard, "One" (1988) Dell Reissue 1989, ISBN 0-440-20562-X
Bach, Richard, "Running from Safety" (1995) Delta, ISBN 0-385-31528-7
Bach, Richard, "Out of My Mind" (2000) Delta, ISBN 0-385-33490-7
Bach, Richard, "The Ferret Chronicles":
"Air Ferrets Aloft" (2002) Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-2753-0
"Rescue Ferrets at Sea" (2002) Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-2750-6
"Writer Ferrets: Chasing the Muse" (2002) Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-2754-9
"Rancher Ferrets on the Range" (2003) Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-2755-7
"The Last War: Detective Ferrets and the Case of the Golden Deed" (2003) Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-2756-5
"Curious Lives: Adventures from the Ferret Chronicles" (2005) Hampton Roads Publishing Company, ISBN 1-57174-457-6
Bach, Richard, "Flying: The Aviation Trilogy" (2003) Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-4747-7
Bach, Richard, "Messiah's Handbook: Reminders for the Advanced Soul" (2004), ISBN 1-57174-421-5

Notes and References
^ 20th-Century American Bestsellers, Accessed September 09, 2006
^ Walters, Raymond, Jr., New York Times Book Review, July 23, 1972, 43
^ The Christian Science Monitor (archive August 10, 2000) Accessed September 09, 2006
^ Bach, Jonathan, "Above the Clouds: A Reunion of Father and Son," (1993) ISBN 0-688-11760-0
^ Richard Bach: A Fan Site Accessed Sept. 11, 2006