quinta-feira, 1 de agosto de 2013


Appropriation is the process of constructing knowledge from social and cultural sources, and integrating it into pre-existing schemas. It is a developmental process that comes about through socially formulated, goal-directed, and tool-mediated actions.Appropriation draws on the developmental theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, as both the cognitive and social-constructivist views of learning are equally emphasized.

Appropriation in education is often understood and analyzed through activity theory. This theory was developed by Leont’ev and focuses on understanding the socio-cultural context (specifically the setting) learning occurs in. Activity theory is predicated on the assumption that a person's frameworks for thinking are developed and carried out in specific settings and that these settings mediate cognitive development.

Since appropriation also places a strong emphasis on setting, these theories complement each other when being used to analyze learning environments.

Process of Appropriating Knowledge

Hung has developed steps through which the appropriation of knowledge usually occurs. The process is as follows:

Growing into dependency (submitting): the student recognizes the differences between their beliefs/knowledge and the beliefs/knowledge of the teacher. The student accepts the teacher as the leader and submits to their beliefs, knowledge and rules.

Dependency (mirroring): The student adapts strategies to help submit to the beliefs, knowledge and rules of the teacher. The student questions the teacher and other students and begins to co-construct and negotiate meanings.

Growing out of dependency (constructing): the student experiments with the beliefs, knowledge and rules co-constructed with the teacher and other students and uses these ideas outside of the classroom. The student discovers patterns, ideas, concepts and beliefs inherent to the learning community and applies them to other environments.

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