sexta-feira, 27 de maio de 2011

Common Reduced forms in American English

This article was written by M.J.Mardanclos

Reduced forms usually use during native speakers conversations. Non-native English speakers can use these reduced forms during their conversations in order to improve their speaking skills.

In the context bellow we tried to explain the most common reduced forms in American English.

“Going to” is pronounced “GONNA” when it is used to show the future. But it is never reduced when it means going from one place to another.

We’re going to grab a bite to eat. = We’re gonna grab a bite to eat.
I’m going to the office tonight. = I’m going to the office tonight.
“Want to” and “want a” are both pronounced “WANNA” and wants to is pronounced “WANSTA”. Do you want to can also be reduced to “WANNA”.

I want to go for a spin. = I wanna go for a spin.
Do you want a piece of cake? = Wanna piece of cake?
He wants to avoid rush hour. = He wansta avoid rush hour.
“Have to” is pronounced “HAFTA” and has to is pronounced “HASTA”.

Sorry, I have to leave now. = Sorry, I hafta leave now.
She has to go to work soon. = She hasta go to work soon.
“Have” reduces to “AV” or “A” in positive and negative phrases.

must have = must’av or must’a must not have = mustn’av or mustn’a
would have = would’av or would’a would not have = wouldn’av or wouldn’a
could have = could’av or could’a could not have = couldn’av or couldn’a
should have = should’av or should’a should not have = shouldn’av or shouldn’a
“You” is almost always pronounced “YA”, you’re and “your are” pronounced “YER”, and yours is pronounced “YERS”.

Do you feel under the weather? = Do ya feel under the weather?
You’re completely right. = Yer completely right.
Your brother will be fine. = Yer brother will be fine.
Is this book yours? = Is this book yers?
“To” is pronounced “TA” after voiceless sounds and “DA” after voiced sounds.

She wants to invite us to the party. = She wants ta invite us ta the party.
I need to go to bed now. = I need da go da bed now.
“And” and “in” both reduce to “N”.

Karen and Steve are coming to visit. = Karen ‘n Steve are coming to visit.
Tim is in Paris this week. = Tom is ‘n Paris this week.
D + Y = J T + Y = CH

did you = did’ju or did’ja let you = let’chu or let’cha
would you = would’ju or would’ja what you = what’chu or what’cha
could you = could’ju or could’ja don’t you = don’chu or don’cha
should you = should’ju or should’ja didn’t you = didn’chu or didn’cha
“T” is pronounced as “D” when it is between two vowels.

That’s a great idea. = That’s a gread idea.
What a great car! = What a great car.
“T” is not pronounced when it is between “N” and “E”.

center = cen’er
counted = coun’ed
The past tense form “-ED” is pronounced “T” after voiceless sounds, “D” after voiced sounds, and “ID” after “T” and “D”.

T- D – ID
talked played decided
dressed ordered wanted
wished happened needed

Similarly, the plural form “–S” is pronounced “S” after voiceless sounds, “Z” after voiced sounds, and “IZ” after “S”,” Z”, “SH”, and “CH.”

S- Z -IZ
desks sisters horses
cats legs peaches
tops eyes offices

The “h” sound in the pronouns “he, him, his, and her” and the “th” sound in them are not pronounced in fast speech when they are unstressed; however, they are pronounced when they are stressed.

I think he flunked bio class. = I think ‘e flunked bio class.
I told him to study more. = I told ‘im to study more.
He got an A on his final. = He got an A on ‘is final.
She thinks her teacher is crazy. = She thinks ‘er teacher is crazy.
Pop quizzes… I hate them! = Pop quizzes… I hate ‘em
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